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Ruth Rikowski Framlingham Castle

Ruth Rikowski
Framlingham Castle

ADDITIONS TO ACADEMIA POSTS: OCTOBER 2016 – RUTH RIKOWSKI

 

Ruth Rikowski has posted some new papers to Academia. These are as follows:

Rikowski, Ruth (2001) GATS:  private affluence and public squalor? Implications for libraries and information, Managing Information, Vol.8 No.10, December, pp.8-10, online at: http://www.academia.edu/27814491/GATS_private_affluence_and_public_squalor_Implications_for_libraries_and_information

Rikowski, R. (2002) The Corporate Takeover of Libraries, Information for Social Change, No.14, winter 2001/02, online at: http://www.academia.edu/27807996/The_Corporate_Takeover_of_Libraries

Rikowski, R. (2002) The WTO/GATS Agenda for Libraries, Talk prepared for a public meeting at Sussex University, 23rd May 2002, online at: http://www.academia.edu/27815712/The_WTO_GATS_Agenda_for_Libraries_Talk_prepared_for_public_meeting_at_SUSSEX_UNIVERSITY

Rikowski, R. (2002) A First-Time in Glasgow: impressions of the IFLA Conference, 2002, IFLA Journal, Vol.28 Nos.5/6, pp.278-280, online at: http://www.academia.edu/27807485/A_First_Timer_In_Glasgow_Impressions_of_the_IFLA_Conference_2002

Rikowski, R. (2003) Globalisation and Libraries – House of Lords Paper, in: Report by House of Lords, Select Committee on Economic Affairs, Session 2002-03, 1st Report, Volume of Evidence, Part 2, HL Paper 5-11, London: The Stationary Office, online at: http://www.academia.edu/27807221/Globalisation_and_Libraries_House_of_Lords_Paper

Rikowski, R. (2003) The Significance of WTO Agreements for the Library and Information World, Managing Information, January / February, Vol.16 No.1, p.43, online at: http://www.academia.edu/27814793/The_Significance_of_WTO_Agreements_for_the_Library_and_Information_Profession

Rikowski, R. (2003) Tripping Along With TRIPS? The World Trade Organization’s agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and its implications for the library and information world, Managing Information, Vol.10 No.3, April, pp10-12, online at: http://www.academia.edu/27814936/Tripping_Along_with_TRIPS_The_World_Trade_Organizations_agreement_on_Trade-Related_Aspects_of_Intellectual_Property_Rights_TRIPS_and_its_implications_for_the_library_and_information_world

Rikowski, R. (2003) The Role of the Information Professional in Knowledge Management: The Beginning of the End or the End of the Beginning for the Library and Information Profession? Managing Information, Vol.10 No.4, pp.44-47, online at: http://www.academia.edu/27814711/The_Role_of_the_Information_Professional_in_Knowledge_Management_The_Beginning_of_the_End_or_the_End_of_the_Beginning_for_the_Library_and_Information_Profession

Rikowski, R. (2004) Creating Value from Knowledge in the Knowledge Revolution, Information for Social Change, No.20, winter 2004, online at: http://www.academia.edu/27807687/Creating_Value_from_Knowledge_in_the_Knowledge_Revolution

Rikowski, R. (2008) Digital Libraries and Digitalisation: an overview and critique, Policy Futures in Education, Vol.6 No.1, pp.5-21, online at: http://www.academia.edu/27815559/Digital_Libraries_and_Digitisation_an_overview_and_critique

Rikowski, R. (2008) Computers / Information and Communications Technology, the Information Profession and the Gender Divide: Where are we going? Policy Futures in Education, Vol.6 No.4, pp.482-506, online at: http://www.academia.edu/27815632/Computers_Information_and_Communications_Technology_the_Information_Profession_and_the_Gender_Divide_where_are_we_going

 

For all of Ruth Rikowski’s papers at Academia, see: http://lsbu.academia.edu/RuthRikowski

For all of Glenn Rikowski’s papers at Academia, see: http://independent.academia.edu/GlennRikowski

 

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Neoliberalism

Neoliberalism

ACADEMICS RAISE ALARM OVER U.S. TRADE AGREEMENT

From: http://researchprofessional.com
Academics raise alarm over US trade agreement
22nd May 2014

Higher education must be excluded from any future trade partnership between the EU and the United States to avoid an influx of private universities, according to university groups.

Concerns have been raised as discussions are under way about a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, designed to reduce barriers to trading goods and services. Discussions on the TTIP began in July last year and are proceeding on the basis of a negative list approach, meaning that unless a subject is explicitly excluded, it could be up for negotiation. If higher education is tabled, the implications are that both sides could open their borders to free competition from elsewhere, a stark change for many EU countries in which universities are state-owned and protected.

Howard Davies, an adviser at the European University Association, says higher education is a public good that should remain outside the remit of  such an agreement. It’s mainly a member state jurisdiction, and member
states should continue to have the right to run their systems as they please, he says.

Education International, the global federation of teachers unions, is also pushing for education to be exempt. ‘Including it in an EU-US partnership would directly lead to an increase in privatisation, which we oppose’, says
Guntars Catlaks, the unions senior coordinator for research. Negotiators are also considering agreements on the mutual recognition of professional qualifications, intellectual property, e-commerce and data protection, which could affect universities.

Some member states may support a TTIP higher education agreement as they are in favour of commodification. In the UK there are universities that have opened campuses abroad and the whole ambience is entrepreneurial, says Davies. But that’s not true of other countries.

However, awareness of the TTIP negotiations in universities and rector associations remains low, which could be a problem if higher education is included in a final deal. If an agreement is reached, it will be presented to ministers and the European Parliament and there won’t be much time for lobby groups to amend whatever has been decided, says Davies.

The Parliament and environmental groups have been pushing for more transparency in the discussions to aid public debate. Davies says this has made the negotiating parties more nervous about public opinion. But it will never be totally transparent because you can’t conduct negotiations in a glass box, he says.

This article also appeared in Research Europe
– See more at:
https://www.researchprofessional.com/0/rr/news/europe/politics/2014/5/Academics-raise-alarm-over-US-trade-agreement.html#sthash.v2KMMid4.dpuf

 

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‘Human Herbs’ – a song by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

Glenn Rikowski @ Academia: http://independent.academia.edu/GlennRikowski

Glenn Rikowski on Facebook at: http://www.facebook.com/glenn.rikowski

Volumizer: http://glennrikowski.blogspot.com

Rikowski Point: http://rikowskpoint.blogspot.com

Glenn Rikowski on Facebook at: http://www.facebook.com/glenn.rikowski

Online Publications at: http://www.flowideas.co.uk/?page=pub&sub=Online%20Publications%20Glenn%20Rikowski

Neoliberalism

Neoliberalism

NEGOTIATIONS BEGIN ON NEW SERVICES DEAL

Steven Kelk, Sunday 7th July 2013 (from GATSeducation Yahoo Group: GATSeducation@yahoogroups.com)

http://www.ei-ie.org/en/news/news_details/2615/
Negotiations begin on new services deal (05 July 2013)

Trade talks aimed at developing a new global services pact have begun following an agreement on a negotiating framework earlier this year.
The Trade in International Services Agreement (TISA) is being negotiated by the so-called ‘Real Good Friends of Services’ within the World Trade Organisation: Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, European Union, Hong Kong, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States.

Informal talks within the group began last year in response to pressure from business groups frustrated with the impasse in WTO negotiations to develop new and enhanced commitments under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).

In March, negotiators agreed to adopt a ‘hybrid’ framework for the talks which would involve countries making market access commitments on a ‘positive list’ basis, and national treatment on a ‘negative list’ basis. With a positive list approach, countries agree to liberalise only those service sectors that they agree to, while with a negative list agreeing to liberalise all areas except those explicitly excluded.

The WTO members engaged in the talks have indicated that no service sector will be excluded, but some are pushing for priorities. A joint Australia-EU paper issued late last year suggested 10 issues should be the focus of the TISA: cross-border movement of professionals; domestic regulation and transparency; financial services; professional services; information and communications services; transport and logistics services;  maritime services; environmental services; energy services; and government procurement.

‘While education services are not a specific focus of the talks to date, we nevertheless need to watch developments closely, says Education International’s trade consultant David Robinson. ‘For instance, the inclusion of domestic regulation could affect rules around the  accreditation of schools, and around qualification requirements that could  have an impact on the design and delivery of vocational education and training’.

Robinson added that the targeting of financial services for further liberalisation is particularly worrisome given how weak regulatory oversight played a key role in the economic crisis of 2008.

‘If there’s anything we’ve learned over the past few years it’s that the liberalisation of financial services has been a catastrophic disaster for the economy, for government finances, for working people, and for public services including education,’ Robinson said. ‘Trade deals threaten to constrain policy space precisely at a time when governments need to rein in the financial sector’.

Robinson noted reports that the financial industry is lobbying to use trade deals as a way of weakening domestic regulations.

According to U.S. Democratic Senator Elizabeth Warren, there are ‘growing murmurs’ about the financial industry’s efforts to ‘do quietly through trade agreements what they can’t get done in public view with the lights on and people watching’.

In letter published in May, Peter Allgeier, a former U.S. Trade Representative and now president of the Coalition of Services Industries, said that trade rules require that regulations are ‘least trade and investment distorting’ and do not constitute a ‘disguised barrier to trade’.

Meanwhile, WTO members not participating in the TISA talks have criticized the initiative as undermining the multilateral approach of the WTO. Brazil, China, and India have been vocal opponents of TISA.

 

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‘Human Herbs’ – a song by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

Glenn Rikowski @ Academia: http://independent.academia.edu/GlennRikowski

Glenn Rikowski on Facebook at: http://www.facebook.com/glenn.rikowski

Volumizer: http://glennrikowski.blogspot.com

Rikowski Point: http://rikowskpoint.blogspot.com

Glenn Rikowski on Facebook at: http://www.facebook.com/glenn.rikowski

Online Publications at: http://www.flowideas.co.uk/?page=pub&sub=Online%20Publications%20Glenn%20Rikowski

 

Glenn Rikowski

THE GLOBALISATION LECTURES

2012-2013

Organised by the Department of Development Studies

School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS)

University of London

Convenor: Professor Gilbert Achcar

Wednesday 31 October, 6:30pm – Brunei Gallery Lecture Theatre

GLOBALISATION IN TIME: BETWEEN THE CAMERA AND THE CLOCK

 MARCUS VERHAGEN

Art historian and critic, Sotheby’s Institute of Art and Goldsmiths College, University of London

Wednesday 28 November, 6:30pm – Brunei Gallery Lecture Theatre

WHICH DEMOCRACY FOR A MULTIPOLAR WORLD?

CHANTAL MOUFFE

Professor of political theory and director of the Centre for the Study of Democracy at the University of Westminster

Wednesday 6 February, 6:30pm – Brunei Gallery Lecture Theatre

IS ISLAMISM THE ARAB DESTINY?

AZIZ AL-AZMEH

CEU University Professor, School of Historical and Interdisciplinary Studies, Central European University, Budapest

Wednesday 6 March, 6:30pm – Brunei Gallery Lecture Theatre

WOMEN AND THE ‘ARAB SPRING’: LESSONS FROM IRAN?

HAIDEH MOGHISSI

Professor and Trudeau Fellow, Department of Equity Studies, York University, Toronto

Published first in http://www.historicalmaterialism.org/news/distributed/the-globalisation-lectures-2012-13-soas-starts-31-october

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Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk

MySpace Profile: http://www.myspace.com/glennrikowski

Rikowski Point: http://rikowskipoint.blogspot.com

Volumizer: http://glennrikowski.blogspot.com

Glenn Rikowski on Facebook at: http://www.facebook.com/glenn.rikowski

Glenn Rikowski’s MySpace Blog: http://www.myspace.com/glennrikowski/blog

Online Publications at: http://www.flowideas.co.uk/?page=pub&sub=Online%20Publications%20Glenn%20Rikowski

Globalization

Postcolonial

STRUGGLES, STRATEGIES AND ANALYSIS OF ANTICOLONIAL AND POSTCOLONIAL SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Interface Journal – http://www.interfacejournal.net

Special issue editors: Aziz Choudry, Lesley Wood, Mandisi Majavu

REMINDER:- Deadline 1 November 2012

Scholars of empire (e.g. Ananya Roy 2005 & Derek Gregory 2004) point out that the “colonial present” is not only the initial moment of the colonial encounter, but also the constant manufacturing of ‘democracies’, ‘freedoms’, economies and histories in a manner that advances the goals of empire even long after empire has supposedly withdrawn from the colony. Raghavan (1990), for example, described economic globalization through the GATT (now the WTO) as ‘recolonization’ of the nominally independent states of the global South.

While anticolonial and postcolonial movements are the subject of a rich body of thought and sites of significant knowledge production in themselves, challenges to the conceptual accuracy and appropriateness of the widely-used terms ‘postcolonialism’ and ‘postcolonial’ also come from Indigenous scholars and activists (L.T. Smith, 1999; Venne, 2004; M.Jackson, 2004, 2007; Coulthard; 2011; Watson, 2008; A.Smith, 2005) and critical race feminists (Thobani, 2007) based in settler colonial states such Australia, Canada, Aotearoa/New Zealand and the USA. 

This special issue of the open-access, online, copyleft academic/activist journal Interface: a Journal for and about Social Movements (http://www.interfacejournal.net/) links anticolonial and postcolonial accounts of movements and their praxis to resist the ‘colonial present’ that is embodied in state policies, intergovernmental institutions, processes and agreements such as the World Bank, IMF, and WTO, domestic and global capital.and indeed in some cases, NGOs and ‘civil society’ movements themselves. 

The editors are seeking papers that examine the praxis and the politics of anticolonial and postcolonial movements. How are the ideas of Fanon, Cabral, Cesaire and other activist/intellectuals relevant to movements today in continuing struggles for self-determination, justice and liberation, and against the co-optation of independence struggles by domestic elites and contemporary forms of colonial violence and imperialism? How do these movements conceptualise feminism? Do middle class activists, NGOs and academics have a role to play in these movements, and popular struggles in present-day, or formerly colonized territories? 

Papers may question the meaning of postcolonialism, anticolonialism or decolonization and its relevance/implications for organizing. How do analyses of colonialism and practices towards decolonization inform contemporary struggles in different contexts? Contributors are encouraged to explore regional and historical and other contextual differences in the way that these movements have developed. 

General submissions

As in all issues of Interface, we will accept submissions on topics that are not related to the special theme of the issue, but that emerge from or focus on movements around the world and the immense amount of knowledge that they generate. Such general submissions should contribute to the journal’s mission as a tool to help our movements learn from each other’s struggles, by developing analyses from specific movement processes and experiences that can be translated into a form useful for other movements.

In this context, we welcome contributions by movement participants and academics who are developing movement-relevant theory and research. Our goal is to include material that can be used in a range of ways by movements – in terms of its content, its language, its purpose and its form. We thus seek work in a range of different formats, such as conventional articles, review essays, facilitated discussions and interviews, action notes, teaching notes, key documents and analysis, book reviews — and beyond. Both activist and academic peers review research contributions, and other material is sympathetically edited by peers. The editorial process generally is geared towards assisting authors to find ways of expressing their understanding, so that we all can be heard across geographical, social and political distances.

We can accept material in Afrikaans, Arabic, Catalan, Croatian, Danish, English, French, German, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Latvian, Maltese, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish and Zulu. Please see our editorial contacts page for details of who to submit to.

Deadline and contact details

The deadline for initial submissions to this issue, to be published May 2013, is November 1 2012. For details of how to submit to Interface, please see the “Guidelines for contributors” on our website. All manuscripts, whether on the special theme or other topics, should be sent to the appropriate regional editor, listed on our contacts page. Submission templates are available online via the guidelines page.

 

Published first in: http://www.historicalmaterialism.org/news/distributed/cfp-struggles-strategies-and-analysis-of-anticolonial-and-postcolonial-social-movements-deadline-1-november

 

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Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk

MySpace Profile: http://www.myspace.com/glennrikowski

Rikowski Point: http://rikowskipoint.blogspot.com

Volumizer: http://glennrikowski.blogspot.com

Glenn Rikowski on Facebook at: http://www.facebook.com/glenn.rikowski

Glenn Rikowski’s MySpace Blog: http://www.myspace.com/glennrikowski/blog

Online Publications at: http://www.flowideas.co.uk/?page=pub&sub=Online%20Publications%20Glenn%20Rikowski

 

Glenn Rikowski

Glenn Rikowski

TRADE UNIONS, FREE TRADE AND THE PROBLEM OF TRANSNATIONAL SOLIDARITY

Workshop at Nottingham 2/3 December 2011 – Papers now Available!

Resistance against free trade agreements has increased since the demonstrations at the WTO ministerial conference inSeattlein 1999. Positions by trade unions on free trade agreements are, however, ambiguous. While trade unions in the North especially in manufacturing have supported free trade agreements to secure export markets for ‘their’ companies, trade unions in the Global South oppose these agreements, since they often imply deindustrialisation.

Academics, trade union researchers and social movement activists met in a two-day workshop, hosted by the Centre for the Study of Social and Global Justice (CSSGJ) at the School of Politics and International Relations/University of Nottingham, on 2 and 3 December 2011 to discuss these issues in detail. The purpose of the workshop was to understand better the dynamics underlying free trade as well as explore possibilities for transnational solidarity between labour movements in the North and South. The papers of the workshop can be downloaded below:

Panel 1 – Conceptual and methodological considerations
Panel 2 – Free trade and particular sectors
Panel 3 – European trade unions and free trade
Panel 4 – Free trade negotiations
Panel 5 – Free trade and the Global South
Panel 6 – Resistance to free trade agreements and the quest for alternatives

Original source: http://www.historicalmaterialism.org/news/distributed/now-available-contributions-from-decembers-trade-unions-free-trade-and-the-problem-of-transnational-solidarity-workshop-at-nottingham

The Battle in Seattle: Its Significance for Education, by Glenn Rikowski (London, Tufnell Press, 2001)

From the publishers: http://www.tpress.free-online.co.uk/seattle.html

“It’s a wonderful outline of the new anti-capitalist activity It pulls together all aspects of changes to all levels of education, as it is drawn into the profit business ­ and ever further away from wider concepts of education.” — Caroline Benn, Hillcole Group of Radical Left Educators, and President of the Socialist Education Association

“This is essential reading for all those the world over who have been driven to the margins of existence by forces of the current phase of capitalism – globalisation. It helps to understand the forces hiding behind bodies such as the World Trade Organisation that drive us relentlessly towards giving up control over our minds and bodies. This booklet looks particularly at the dangers facing education systems from the global search for mega profits. It also shows that people’s resistance can make a difference in snatching control over their lives.” — Shiraz Durrani, Information for Social Change

“Glenn Rikowski vividly demonstrates the centrality of education in capitalist globalisation. With precision and utmost clarity, he also details the historical background to ‘The Battle in Seattle’ as well as the other mass demonstrations against global capitalism and its agents of destruction. Rikowski’s seminal text is destined to become essential reading for critical/radical educators and political activists, but it should be read by everyone who is concerned with, and about, the future of education indeed, the future of humanity.” — Paula Allman, Honorary Research Fellow, University of Nottingham, and author of Critical Education Against Global Capital: Karl Marx and Revolutionary Critical Education

“Glenn Rikowski has produced a brilliant and I believe historical landmark in Left education.” — Peter McLaren, University of California, Los Angeles, and author of Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, and the Pedagogy of Revolution

“I felt compelled to grab the red flag and take to the streets as I worked through Glenn Rikowski’s well documented exposé of what the World Trade Organisation is up to and its plans for education. But Glenn’s analysis is much more than a clarion call. It anchor’s that call in solid theory and critique so that my immediate response can now be matched by informed and focused action. An activist’s true handbook.” — Helen Raduntz, University of South Australia

Amazon.co.uk: http://www.amazon.co.uk/The-Battle-Seattle-Significance-Education/dp/1872767370/ref=sr_1_3?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1333617350&sr=1-3

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk

MySpace Profile: http://www.myspace.com/glennrikowski

‘Human Herbs’ – a new remix and new video by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

‘Stagnant’ – a new remix and new video by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkP_Mi5ideo  

‘Cheerful Sin’ – a song by Victor Rikowski: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tIbX5aKUjO8

Glenn Rikowski

SYMPATHETIC MATERIALISM: AN EVENING WITH ALLAN SEKULA

Sunday – 02.12.12 – Sympathetic Materialism – An Evening with Allan Sekula

Contents:
1. Introduction to Sunday
2. A note on sympathetic materialism
3. Untitled preface to Waiting for Tear Gas
4. Lottery of the Sea: Prologue and Ending
5. The Forgotten Space – screening at MoMA, Monday, 02.13.11
6. Related readings/viewings
7. Filmography
8. About Allan Sekula

__________________________________________________
1. Introduction to Sunday

What: A screening and conversation with Allan Sekula
Where: 16 Beaver Street, 4th Floor
When: 7pm
Who: Free and open to all

We propose to organize this evening’s discussion with Allan into two parts, which we’re calling “world” and “globe.”

Looking back at the recent resurgence of anticapitalist street protest in the US, we would like to begin with a look at his documentation of the Seattle counterglobalization demonstrations of 1999.

Looking forward to the screening of his newest film, The Forgotten Space, the following day (Monday), we’ll look at some of his other work that engages globalization and maritime space.

— Part 1 – World – Waiting for Tear Gas [White Globe to Black] (1999–2000)

Taken on the streets of Seattle during the 1999 WTO protests, Waiting for Tear Gas is a sequence of color slides that sketches a kind of group portrait of the demonstrators. Ben Young will open the discussion with a set of questions and proposals raised by looking at Waiting for Tear Gas today, especially after the renewal of anticapitalist street demonstrations in the US by Occupy Wall Street. Some of these include: the persistence of the human figure after humanism; the genre of the (group) portrait in an age of individuals; the ethics and politics of care in the face of social and economic violence; waiting as an experience of exposure, radical passivity, means without ends, or messianic time; the tempo of attentive expectation  that runs counter to the insistent rush of direct action; the street as a space of appearance that is both material and virtual; and what the practice of “antiphotojournalism” (as Sekula calls it) and the reinvention of documentary look like today, especially in the context of social media.

— Part 2 – Globe – Lottery of the Sea: Prologue and Ending (2006, 25 min.)

If the world is a form of relating to others, a continually renewed set of social bonds, then the globe can be understood as the instrumental grasping of the earth as a map, as a tool, as a space to be measured, calculated, and mastered. While much recent criticism of capitalism has focused on the financialization of the world, Sekula has been engaged in the long-term investigation of the material circuits of manufacturing and commodity exchange, focusing on the ocean as the unseen matrix of globalization. We’ll get a sense of this work by screening the prologue and ending to his video Lottery of the Sea. This is partly a tale of the mobility of capital, under the flag of convenience, chasing profits across the globe by evading limits on environmental damage and exploiting the poorest workers; it also pictures something like the promise of a world community that capital establishes materially but prevents politically. At the same time, this work also helps mark Sekula’s shift from “disassembled movies” created with still photography to the essay film, and what he had earlier resisted as “the tyranny of the projector.” How has this also shifted the balance between the triad of literature, painting, cinema that framed his earlier work, and what does it mean for art, documentary, or antiphotojournalism?

We hope that looking at both works together will open up a discussion to which many voices will contribute.

__________________________________________________
2. A note on sympathetic materialism

“Sympathetic materialism” is a term Allan Sekula has used to describe a solidarity “born of seasickness” in certain seafaring writers accustomed to the long duration of ocean travel. But it can equally be applied to his own work: the patient, careful attention of the photographer to the conditions and details of everyday life seen from below, especially the impingements and labors of the body.

As a writer, he has criticized the latent humanism of much social documentary, on one hand, and the dream of autonomy in formalist aesthetics, on the other. As a photographer, he has cannily reworked the photo and text-based series inherited from conceptual art, continually questioning the fullness and sufficiency of any single image. But this emphasis on questioning images is not a simple negation or refusal of the particular, the phenomenological, or the aesthetic. Rather, by arranging pictures into sequences and often paring them with text, his is a materialism attentive to the manifold surfaces of the world, one that seeks to forge links within this profusion of details. It is also a materialism that returns again and again to the human figure in its milieu: not only in the workplace, but also the in-between spaces of transit, transport, and circulation, as well as the spaces of unemployment and unworking–at the margins of work and exchange. This is perhaps partly what led him to the sea as the vantage point for much of his work of the last twenty years.

In the reversal of perspective produced by going to sea, it may no longer be possible to hold onto the earth, or the space of the street, as the static ground of life or politics; instead, when viewed from the ocean, the land becomes another island or ship floating alongside us. And we know that the water does not raise all boats, but can sink them too. If the capitalist order forces us all to sea, it threatens us not only with seasickness, but total wreckage. It may then be a question of cultivating something like sympathetic materialism among those in the lifeboats.

–Benjamin Young

__________________________________________________
3. Allan Sekula, untitled preface to Waiting for Tear Gas [White Globe to Black] (1999-2000)

In photographing the Seattle demonstrations the working idea was to move with the flow of protest, from dawn to 3 AM if need be, taking in the lulls, the waiting and the margins of events. The rule of thumb for this sort of anti-photojournalism: no flash, no telephoto lens, no gas mask, no auto-focus, no press pass and no pressure to grab at all costs the one defining image of dramatic violence.

Later, working at the light table, and reading the increasingly stereotypical descriptions of the new face of protest, I realized all the more that a simple descriptive physiognomy was warranted. The alliance on the streets was indeed stranger, more varied and inspired than could be conveyed by cute alliterative play with “teamsters” and “turtles.”

I hoped to describe the attitudes of people waiting, unarmed, sometimes deliberately naked in the winter chill, for the gas and the rubber bullets and the concussion grenades. There were moments of civic solemnity, of urban anxiety, and of carnival.

Again, something very simple is missed by descriptions of this as a movement founded in cyberspace: the human body asserts itself in the city streets against the abstraction of global capital. There was a strong feminist dimension to this testimony, and there was also a dimension grounded in the experience of work. It was the men and women who work on the docks, after all, who shut down the flow of metal boxes from Asia, relying on individual knowledge that there is always another body on the other side of the sea doing the same work, that all this global trade is more than a matter of a mouse-click.

One fleeting hallucination could not be photographed. As the blast of stun grenades reverberated amidst the downtown skyscrapers, someone with a boom box thoughtfully provided a musical accompaniment: Jimi Hendrix’s mock-hysterical rendition of the American national anthem. At that moment, Hendrix returned to the streets of Seattle, slyly caricaturing the pumped-up sovereignty of the world’s only superpower.

–from Alexander Cockburn, Jeffrey St. Clair, and Allan Sekula, Five Days That Shook the World: Seattle and Beyond_ (London: Verso, 2000). Also available online:
http://www.holy-damn-it.org/plakate/download/AllanSekula_engl.pdf

__________________________________________________
4. Lottery of the Sea: Prologue and Ending (2006, 25 min.)

The Lottery of the Sea takes its title from Adam Smith, who in his famous Inquiry into the Wealth of Nations (1776) compared the life of the seafarer to gambling. Thus notions of risk were introduced by Smith through an allegory of the sea’s dangers especially for those who did the hard work, and also for those who invested in ships and goods. The film asks: is there a relationship between the most frightening and terrifying concept in economics, that of risk, and the category of the sublime in aesthetics?

It is an offbeat diary extending from the presumably “innocent” summer of 2001 through to the current “war on terror” by way of a meandering, essayistic voyage from seaport to seaport, waterfront to waterfront, and coast to coast. What does it mean to be a maritime nation? To rule the waves? Or to harvest the sea? An American submarine collides with a Japanese fisheries training ship. What does this suggest about the division of labor in the Pacific? Panama decides whether to expand the width of its canal, over which it now exercises a certain qualified measure of sovereignty. How is it that a scuba diver would be most prepared to question this great flushing of the jungle watershed? Galicia is presented with an unwanted gift of oil, with important questions following about the monomania of governments able only to conceptualize danger in one dimension. Barcelona turns anew to its seafront, producing a pseudo-public sphere and new real estate value to the north and even greater maritime logistical efficiency to the south. In between, we visit blizzards and demonstrations in New York, drifting prehistoric mastodons in Los Angeles, militant drummers and bemused African construction workers in Lisbon, millionaires or millionaire-impersonators in Amsterdam, and the stray dogs of Athens, all by way of thinking through seeing the sea, the market, and democracy.

__________________________________________________
5. The Forgotten Space – screening at MoMA, Monday, 02.13.11

What: screening and discussion of The Forgotten Space with Allan Sekula
Where: Museum of Modern Art, theater 2
When: 7pm

The Forgotten Space (dir. Allan Sekula and Noël Burch) follows container cargo aboard ships, barges, trains and trucks, listening to workers, engineers, planners, politicians, and those marginalized by the global transport system. We visit displaced farmers and villagers in Holland and Belgium, underpaid truck drivers in Los Angeles, seafarers aboard mega-ships shuttling between Asia and Europe, and factory workers in China, whose low wages are the fragile key to the whole puzzle. And in Bilbao, we discover the most sophisticated expression of the belief that the maritime economy, and the sea itself, is somehow obsolete.

A range of materials is used: descriptive documentary, interviews, archive stills and footage, clips from old movies. The result is an essayistic, visual documentary about one of the most important processes that affects us today. The Forgotten Space is based on Sekula’s Fish Story, seeking to understand and describe the contemporary maritime world in relation to the complex symbolic legacy of the sea.

http://www.moma.org/visit/calendar/film_screenings/14501

__________________________________________________
6. Related readings/viewings

——Waiting for Tear Gas——-

Alexander Cockburn, Jeffrey St. Clair, and Allan Sekula, ‘Five Days That Shook the World: Seattle and Beyond’ (London: Verso, 2000).

Allan Sekula, ‘TITANIC’s wake’, (Cherbourg-Octeville, France: Le Point du Jour Editeur, 2003)

——The Forgotten Space——-

The Forgotten Space (website): http://www.theforgottenspace.net/

Allan Sekula and Noël Burch, “Notes on the Forgotten Space” http://www.theforgottenspace.net/static/notes.html

Discussion with Benjamin Buchloh, David Harvey, and Allan Sekula after a screening of The Forgotten Space at Cooper Union, May 2011 (21 min.): http://www.afterall.org/online/material-resistance-allan-sekula-s-forgotten-space

——other works on globalization and maritime space——-

Sekula interview with Grant Watson, “Ship of Fools” (22 min.): http://vimeo.com/12397261

Allan Sekula, “Between the Net and the Deep Blue Sea (Rethinking the Traffic in Photographs),” October 102 (Fall 2002): 3–34.
http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/016228702320826434

Sekula, ‘Fish Story’ (Rotterdam and Dusseldorf: Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art and Richter Verlag, 1995).

Sekula, ‘Deep Six/Passer au bleu’ (Calais: Musée des Beaux Arts, 2001).

‘Allan Sekula: Dead Letter Office’ (Rotterdam: Netherlands Foto Instituut, 1997).

Sekula, ‘Performance Under Working Conditions’ (Vienna: Generali Foundation, 2003).

__________________________________________________
7. Filmography

The Forgotten Space (2010, with Noël Burch)
The Lottery of the Sea (2006)
Short Film for Laos (2006)
Gala (2005)
Tsukiji (2001)
Reagan Tape (1984, with Noël Burch)
Talk Given by Mr. Fred Lux at the Lux Clock Manufacturing Plant in Lebanon, Tennessee, on Wednesday, September 15, 1954 (1974)
Performance under Working Conditions (1973)

__________________________________________________
8. About Allan Sekula

Allan Sekula is an artist, photographer, writer, and, more recently, film and video maker. Since the mid-1970s he has exhibited and published many photography-based works; he is also the author of a number of key essays in the history of photography (including “On the Invention of Photographic Meaning,” “Dismantling Modernism, Reinventing Documentary,” “The Traffic in Photographs,” and “The Body and the Archive”).

Recent works Ship of Fools (1990–2010) and Dockers’ Museum (2010) are currently on view in “Oceans and Campfires: Allan Sekula and Bruno Serralongue,” San Francisco Art Institute; earlier works are currently included in “State Of Mind: New California Art Circa 1970,” Orange County Museum of Art; “Under the Big Black Sun: California Art 1974–1981,” Museum of Contemporary Art, LA; and “Light Years: Conceptual Art and the Photograph 1964-1977,” Art Institute of Chicago. Polonia and Other Fables (2009) was recently on view at the Renaissance Society, Chicago; Zacheta Gallery, Warsaw; and the Ludwig Museum, Budapest.

__________________________________________________
16 Beaver Group
16 Beaver Street, 4th fl.
New York, NY 10004

For directions/subscriptions/info visit: http://www.16beavergroup.org

TRAINS:
4,5 — Bowling Green
2,3 — Wall Street
J,Z —  Broad Street
R — Whitehall
1 — South Ferry

**END**

 

‘I believe in the afterlife.

It starts tomorrow,

When I go to work’

Cold Hands & Quarter Moon, ‘Human Herbs’ at: http://www.myspace.com/coldhandsmusic (recording) and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2h7tUq0HjIk (live)

 

‘Maximum levels of boredom

Disguised as maximum fun’

Cold Hands & Quarter Moon, ‘Stagnant’ at: http://www.myspace.com/coldhandsmusic (recording) and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GLjxeHvvhJQ (live, at the Belle View pub, Bangor, north Wales)  

 

‘Human Herbs’ – a new remix and new video by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

‘Stagnant’ – a new remix and new video by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkP_Mi5ideo  

‘Cheerful Sin’ – a song by Victor Rikowski: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tIbX5aKUjO8

‘The Lamb’ by William Blake – set to music by Victor Rikowski: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vw3VloKBvZc

 

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk

MySpace Profile: http://www.myspace.com/glennrikowski

Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.myspace.com/coldhandsmusic

The Ockress: http://www.theockress.com

Rikowski Point: http://rikowskipoint.blogspot.com

Volumizer: http://glennrikowski.blogspot.com

Online Publications at: http://www.flowideas.co.uk/?page=pub&sub=Online%20Publications%20Glenn%20Rikowski

Glenn Rikowski on Facebook at: http://www.facebook.com/glenn.rikowski

World Crisis

SUMMER SCHOOL + MAY EVENTS AT YORK UNIVERSITY – TORONTO

Dear Colleagues:
This is to draw your attention to 3 sets of events we are organizing here at York in May: a graduate summer school in International Political Economy and Ecology, a one day conference The Future of Global Governance, and a SSHRC research workshop on New Constitutionalism and World Order.  We have places available for the summer school, which can be taken for credit or as an audit (details below).

Please see:

1.  A one-day public event on 25 May 2011: The Future of Global Governance.
Details & registration at http://www.yorku.ca/lefutur
Or call Lia Novario: 416-736-2100 extension 33782.
You are all very welcome to attend the lecture event.

2.  An SSHRC-funded international research workshop: New Constitutionalism and World Order. This is by invitation only but summer school, students will sit in.
This will be held 26-28 May 2011.
For details see: http://www.yorku.ca/nc2011/

Summer school information:

York University is now accepting outside applications for a graduate course entitled ‘New Constitutionalism and Global Political Economy.’ 
The 2011 International Political Economy and Ecology Summer School will take place from May 16-28 and will be directed by Distinguished Research Professor Stephen Gill, Political Science and Communications and Culture, York University. Hosted by Departments of Political Science and Geography, Faculty of Liberal Arts and Professional Studies, and by the Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, this year’s International Political Economy and Ecology Summer School is integrated with a One-day Conference and a three-day Research Workshop, that form sessions of the course. Students are required to attend both.

The 2011 IPEESS will be held from May 16-28, Verney Room, Department of Political Science, 6th.FloorSouthRossBuilding,YorkUniversity,Toronto

Here is more detailed information on the summer school:  New Constitutionalism and Global Political Economy

York University Graduate Programs in Political Science, Geography and Environmental Studies Present:

International Political Economy and Ecology Graduate Summer School, May 16-28 2011

Leading lawyers, political economists, social and development theorists will meet with graduate students in May 2011 at York University to analyze and debate a central characteristic of the global political economy: the ‘new constitutionalism.’

This refers to the complex of politico-juridical and constitutional frameworks, regulations and rights that have emerged as key mechanisms of global governance to regulate political economy, society and ecology in the era of neo-liberal capitalism. For example: since 1980, perhaps over 80 states and associations have adopted neoliberal constitutional reforms, including adoption of charters and bills of rights, often in tandem with neoliberal trade and investment frameworks, such as NAFTA, the WTO and some 2700 Bilateral Investment Agreements. There have also been important legal and institutional changes in macroeconomic policy, exemplified by the proliferation of politically ‘independent’ central banks, currency boards and balanced budget laws. These affect not only economic but also social and ecological policies and practices.

Nevertheless, the political, legal and regulatory institutions and frameworks of global capitalism may be up for revision. The deep crisis of accumulation since 2008 has, in effect, created a conjecture that offers a unique opportunity to interrogate the nature and sustainability of new constitutionalism, and to initiate ground-breaking reconsideration of alternative mechanisms for governing our political economies and societies.  It also allows for reflection on the ontological and epistemological bases of comparative/international constitutionalism, political economy and environmental studies, and for critical rethinking of research agendas in these fields.

Classes will normally be held between 13:00-16:00 each day (full syllabus & times available on request).

The Summer School is integrated with two related events that also form class sessions:
1.  A one-day public event on 25 May 2011, 11:00-18:00: The Future of Global Governance. Please see http://www.yorku.ca/lefutur/ for further information and registration (required).
2.  An SSHRC-funded international research workshop: New Constitutionalism and World Order.  IPEESS students will be required to read the papers and offer comments and discussion on the workshop proceedings.  This will be held 9:00-18:00 on the 26th & 27th and 9:00-13:00 on 28 May 2011.  Please see http://www.yorku.ca/nc2011/ for further information.

Faculty: The Course Director is Stephen Gill. Other faculty include: Isabella Bakker (Political Science, York); Adam Harmes (Political Science, Western Ontario); David Schneiderman (Law, Toronto); Philip McMichael (Rural Sociology & Development Studies, Cornell); Robert Albritton (Emeritus, Political Science, York); Claire Cutler (Political Science & Law, Victoria); Upendra Baxi, (Emeritus Professor of Law, Warwick & Delhi) and Richard Falk (Emeritus, International Law & Politics, Princeton; Global Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara).

Applications: The deadline for applications is 16:25 on 3 May 2011.

Students and interested individuals are invited to apply. The course can be taken for credit. For Ontario graduate students the fee for the course is included in their regular tuition.  Non-Ontario students are welcome and should write for further details and enrolment costs.  For all students not seeking academic credit, the fee for the course is CDN $600. York students should submit applications to their GPD with a short statement (100 words) with their qualifications to take the class and it contribution to their program of studies.  GPDs should then forward applications to Judy Matadial, Political Science. All other applicants should submit their applications directly to Judy Matadial, matadial@yorku.ca

Other administrative contacts: Peggy McGrath, FES (peggym@yorku.ca); Yvonne Yim, Geography (yvonney@yorku.ca). For further information, please contact Paul Foley at: pfoley@yorku.ca. The Summer School Director, Stephen Gill, can be reached at: sgill@yorku.ca

Outline syllabus:
Students will be expected to read in advance and during the course.  A course reading kit is available on demand at the York bookstore. Approximately 50-60 pages of readings are allocated for each class session.
1. Introduction. The lineages and genealogy of the new constitutionalism: political theory and political economy. May 16. 13:00-16:00.
2. New constitutionalism, social reproduction and social governance. May 17. 13:00-16:00
3. New constitutionalism and the power of capital I: macroeconomics, central banks, balanced budget laws and crisis management. With special reference to the EU and Canada.  May 18. 13:00-16:00.
4. New constitutionalism and the power of capital II: trade, investment and the regulation of public services. May 19. 13:00-16:00.
5. New constitutionalism and the power of capital III: primitive accumulation and livelihood. With reference to the question of food, water and access to the “commons.”  May 20, 10:30-12:30.
6. New constitutionalism and sustainability:  the ecological question and the regulation of the environment. May 20.14:00-16:30.
7. New constitutionalism and the commodity form of law. May 24. 10-12:30
8. New constitutionalism, legitimacy and insurgent reason: the potentials for alternative forms of constitutionalism. May 24. 14:00-16:30.
9. One day lecture event. http://www.yorku.ca/lefutur/  Future of Global Governance? May 25. 11:00-18:00.
10. New Constitutionalism and World Order Workshop. http://www.yorku.ca/nc2011/ May 26-27: 09:00-18:00; May 28 09:00-13:00.

Dr. Stephen Gill, F.R.S.C.
Distinguished Research Professor
Department of Political Science
Ross S660, York University, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, 
CANADA
Tel (direct): 416-736-2100 ext 88824; Tel: office reception 
416-736-5265; Fax: 416-736-5686
http://www.stephengill.com/

—END—

‘I believe in the afterlife.

It starts tomorrow,

When I go to work’

Cold Hands & Quarter Moon, ‘Human Herbs’ at: http://www.myspace.com/coldhandsmusic (recording) and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2h7tUq0HjIk (live)

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk

MySpace Profile: http://www.myspace.com/glennrikowski

The Ockress: http://www.theockress.com

Volumizer: http://glennrikowski.blogspot.com

World Crisis

DEBT AND AUSTERITY: FROM THE GLOBAL SOUTH TO EUROPE

Invitation – Open to All
Debt and Austerity: From the Global South to Europe
Global Gathering: Athens, Greece 6th-8th May 2011

We would like to invite you to attend a ground-breaking global gathering in Athens, Greece at the beginning of May which will bring debt justice and social justice activists together from Europe and the Global South. As debt and austerity create inequality and poverty within Europe, this event will work toward developing a common understanding of the financial crisis among trade unions, social movements and NGOs, as well as focusing on forming coherent plans for common activities and demands for economic justice. The meeting will also formally support the launch of the call for a debt audit commission in Greece.

Debt audits have been a key means of people challenging their country’s unjust debts, educating and empowering citizens and creating space for a more people-centred form of economics. Debt audits are a key call of many Southern campaigners, some of whom will travel to Greece to discuss the way that audits and other demands for debt justice can help build a new financial and economic model.

The seminar is aimed at social movements, trade unions and NGOs. The meeting will also support Greek activists in their planning for greater social and economic justice and attract international media attention through public sessions and a press conference. The conference will launch an official declaration of solidarity and support for the proposed Greek debt audit and highlight common concerns among Northern and Southern debt and social justice groups.

Sessions include:

* Gaining a deeper understanding of the nature, relevance and politics of debt in Europe and globally
* Learning the lessons of debt and austerity from the global South
* Exploring the resurgence of the IMF and of austerity in Europe and globally
* Exploring the implications of restructuring, repudiating and paying the debt

A full agenda and practical information will be available in the coming days.

We will be joined by speakers from Argentina, Brazil, Zimbabwe, the Philippines, Tunisia and from across Europe, including deeply indebted European countries.

The conference is supported by: the European Network on Debt and Development, the Committee for the Abolition of Third World Debt, the Bretton Woods Project UK, Research Money and Finance, Debt and Development Coalition Ireland, Afri (Action from Ireland), Jubilee Debt Campaign UK, the Observatorio de la Deuda en la Globalización Spain.

The seminar costs will be free (or with a small voluntary contribution). Groups and individuals will need to fundraise their travel costs independently.

For more details please contact:
Greece: Christina arbutus@riseup.net
Ireland: Nessa Ní Chasaide nessa@debtireland.org 01 6174835 / Andy Storey andy.storey@ucd.ie UK: Nick Dearden nick@jubileedebtcampaign.org.uk + 44 207 324 4722
Rest of Europe: Øygunn Brynildsen obrynildsen@eurodad.org +32 2 894 4645

We hope many of you will join us!

—END—

‘I believe in the afterlife.

It starts tomorrow,

When I go to work’

Cold Hands & Quarter Moon, ‘Human Herbs’ at: http://www.myspace.com/coldhandsmusic (recording) and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2h7tUq0HjIk (live)

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk

MySpace Profile: http://www.myspace.com/glennrikowski

The Ockress: http://www.theockress.com

Rikowski Point: http://rikowskipoint.blogspot.com

The Battle in Seattle: Its Significance for Education

TRADE UNIONS, FREE TRADE AND THE PROBLEM OF TRANSNATIONAL SOLIDARITY

Two-day workshop at the Centre for the Study of Social and Global Justice (CSSGJ) at Nottingham University on 2 and 3 December 2011 with Samir Amin as keynote speaker

Since the completion of the GATT Uruguay Round and the establishment of the WTO in the mid-1990s, the international free trade agenda has been drastically expanded including now also issues related to intellectual property rights, trade in services and trade-related investment measures. The WTO Doha negotiations round launched in 2001 had been intended to complete ‘unfinished business’ especially in the area of free trade in services, public procurement and agriculture. At the same time, resistance to these developments has increased with the demonstrations at the WTO ministerial conference in Seattle in 1999 as a first landmark event. The latest attempt to revive the Doha round in July 2008 ended in failure. In view of the problems at the multilateral level, both the EU and the USA have increasingly engaged in bilateral strategies of free trade agreements. These strategies include the expanded trade agenda and are a tool to achieve what has been impossible within a multilateral setting.

Free trade strategies have increasingly become a problem for the international labour movement. On the one hand, trade unions in the North especially in manufacturing have supported free trade agreements. They hope that new export markets for products in their sectors will preserve jobs. On the other, trade unions in the Global South as well as social movements more generally oppose these free trade agreements, since they often imply deindustrialisation and the related loss of jobs for them. Unsurprisingly, transnational solidarity is difficult if not impossible to achieve as a result. At the same time, however, it has to be asked what free trade actually is and whether we can call the existing system really a free trade system? How trade unions understand both these questions is fundamental for their chances to understand each other. Understandings of free trade, which draw on alternative economic theories – see, for example, Samir Amin’s theory of unequal exchange and imperialism – may open up new avenues. 

Additionally, a focus is required on countries’ different position in the global economy, core, semiperiphery, periphery, the related dynamics of uneven and combined development structuring it, as well as the related implications for labour movements in view of free trade. Equally, a sector specific view is required, as particular sectoral dynamics are likely to have an influence on trade unions’ outlook on free trade.

In this workshop, we intend to focus on the problematic around free trade, the current free trade system and the related neo-liberal ideology, as well as analyse the problems for trade unions and social movements in more detail. The objective is to understand better the dynamics underlying free trade as well as explore possibilities for transnational solidarity against the background of uneven and combined development. This will also involve a discussion of alternative conceptualisations of free trade based on different economic theories and the related implications for labour movements. The workshop intends to reach beyond academia and facilitate discussions between academics and trade union researchers as well as social movement activists.

In more detail, we invite papers by academics, trade union researchers and social movement activists in the following areas:

• Basic analyses of what a ‘proper’ free trade system is;
• Analyses of current free trade policies, the implications of neo-liberalism as well as the concrete results of free trade policies for the populations affected. Can we call the current system a free trade system?
• Analyses of free trade policies and the relationships with other policies of neo-liberal restructuring;
• Implications of countries’ structural location in the global economy as well as sectoral specificities for trade unions’ positions on free trade;
• Analyses of resistance movements to concrete free trade agreements with a specific emphasis on co-operation and/or non – co-operation between trade unions and social movements;
• Analyses of the position of specific trade unions and/or social movements on free trade;

Paper proposals of ca. 250 words should be sent to Andreas.Bieler@nottingham.ac.uk by 9 May 2011. There is no registration fee for the workshop and all participants will be provided with coffee/tea breaks, two lunches and one evening dinner free of charge.

The workshop is supported with a small research grant of £6960 by the British Academy (SG102043) as well as a grant of £1750 by the University of Nottingham priority group Integrating Global Society.

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk

MySpace Profile: http://www.myspace.com/glennrikowski

The Ockress: http://www.theockress.com

Rikowski Point: http://rikowskipoint.blogspot.com

Glenn Rikowski on Facebook at: http://www.facebook.com/glenn.rikowski

Volumizer: http://glennrikowski.blogspot.com

Socialism and Hope

LEFT FORUM CONFERENCE: TOWARDS A POLITICS OF SOLIDARITY

Left Forum Conference

Pace University

March 18-20 2011
Towards a Politics of Solidarity

See: http://leftforum.org/content/announcing-2011-conference-theme-towards-politics-solidarity

This year’s Left Forum will focus on the age-old theme of solidarity: the moral act of imagination underpinning working class victories everywhere. It will undertake to examine the new forms of far-reaching solidarity that are both necessary and possible in an increasingly global world.

The spread and intensification of capitalism across the globe binds people together in complex interdependencies – as producers, consumers, victims, and insurgents. And as this process continues, the connections between people become more evident. The rebel Zapatistas in the Lacandon jungle understood clearly that the North American Free Trade Agreement forged in Washington was a direct threat to their traditional way of life and their aspirations for the future.

The potential for transformative struggles in the 21st century depends on new chains of solidarity—between workers in the rich world and workers in the global south, indigenous peasants and more affluent consumers, students and pensioners, villagers in the Niger Delta and environmental campaigners in the Gulf of Mexico, marchers and rioters in Greece and Spain, and unionists in the United States and China.

This year’s Left Forum will contribute to the intellectual underpinnings of new and tighter forms of world-wide solidarity upon which all successful emancipatory struggles of the future will depend.

Please join us once again in building upon the successes of last year’s conference – 200+ panels, 600+ speakers, 3000+ attendees, art shows and theater performances, and plenaries that included Arundhati Roy, Rev. Jesse Jackson, and Noam Chomsky.

The conference will be held from March 18-20, 2011, at Pace University in NYC. Early registration discounts are available for a limited time – register now!

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk

MySpace Profile: http://www.myspace.com/glennrikowski

The Ockress: http://www.theockress.com

Wavering on Ether: http://blog.myspace.com/glennrikowski

Rikowski Point: http://rikowskipoint.blogspot.com

WORKSHOP ON AGRARIAN REFORM

22nd – 25th SEPTEMBER 2010

PARIS

http://actuelmarx.u-paris10.fr/cm6/index6.htm

La Réforme agraire, au passé et au futur

coordonné par Pablo F. Luna (Université Paris Sorbonne): pablo-fernando.luna@paris-sorbonne.fr

La Reforma Agraria, en pasado y futuro

Agrarian Reforms: Past and Future

La Section histoire du Congrès Marx International VI, Crise, révoltes, utopies propose la réunion d’un Atelier de travail consacré a la discussion, dans une perspective historienne et marxiste, de cette problématique du monde contemporain. Il est ouvert aux spécialistes de l’étude de la réforme agraire de par le monde. Mais il voudrait aussi amorcer une réflexion sur la réalité des mondes ruraux actuels et des désastres humains et naturels provoqués dans les campagnes par plusieurs décennies d’un néolibéralisme mondialisé et impitoyable. Il voudrait également s’interroger sur le futur d’une lutte pour la réforme agraire, dans son sens originel, qui semble désormais plus actuelle que jamais.

La réforme de la possession des terres est une aspiration moderne. Après les projets des philosophes, des théologiens et des penseurs, les hommes politiques réformateurs ont essayé de la mettre en pratique avec toutefois des objectifs différents, que ce soit dans le monde britannique ou en Europe continentale (les pays germaniques et nordiques, la France, la Péninsule ibérique, la Péninsule italienne). A la fin du 18e siècle, la Révolution française a eu, tel que nous le savons, une forte composante agraire et paysanne. La nationalisation et la vente des biens du clergé et de la noblesse, pour s’attaquer aux forces hostiles au processus révolutionnaire, a pu ouvrir la voie à un important transfert de terres dans le court et dans le moyen terme, qui a également favorisé certains segments sociaux du monde paysan.

Sous des formes diverses, tout le 19e siècle a été marqué ici et là, y compris en Russie et en Amérique, par la question agraire et par celle de la possession de la terre. Ces deux ambitions ont été en même temps des revendications socioéconomiques et politiques, rattachées souvent, dans le cadre des empires, à la reconnaissance des peuples et des nations sans Etat et à la lutte contre l’oppression nationale, pour la liberté. La paysannerie et sa lutte pour la terre et contre les propriétaires fanciers et les hobereaux, étrangers ou autochtones, se sont ainsi régulièrement situées au cœur du mouvement national.

Mais il a fallu attendre 1910 — il y a tout juste un siècle —, pour voir vraiment apparaître le mot « réforme agraire » dans sa signification contemporaine. Et avec le mot son contenu et avec le contenu son application politique concrète, dans le contexte d’un mouvement populaire victorieux. C’est au Mexique, — où se produit la première révolution du 20e siècle — et dans la pratique des mouvements paysans puis des gouvernements révolutionnaires, que la réforme agraire a pris tout son sens de lutte pour le changement de la propriété de la terre, pour la réforme du régime de travail, pour la transformation du système de production et de distribution de la richesse, et aussi pour le pouvoir politique de l’Etat. Le mot d’ordre Terre et liberté qui synthétisait alors, et durant plusieurs décennies, les aspirations des Indiens et des paysans mexicains est devenu depuis la pierre de touche des projets de réforme agraire formulés et mis en pratique.

Le 20e siècle a connu des réformes agraires, au pluriel, les unes plus radicales que les autres, proposées soit par la lutte paysanne et ouvrière révolutionnaire, soit par des Etats réformateurs (parfois militaires et/ou nationalistes), et même par des projets politiques qui ont voulu preserver la société et le système en vigueur et contrecarrer des mouvements révolutionnaires en perspective. Cette tendance, mondialement transversale, n’a pratiquement épargnée aucune région du monde: l’ancienne Russie devenu URSS, la Chine populaire, l’Europe centrale, orientale et méridionale, l’Inde, l’Indochine, l’Amérique latine, et meme l’Afrique d’avant et d’après les décolonisations.

Les propositions d’intervention peuvent être envoyées jusqu’au 30 juin 2010 à pablo-fernando.luna@paris-sorbonne.fr

Pablo F. Luna (Université Paris Sorbonne)

La Reforma Agraria, en pasado y futuro

La reforma de la posesión de la tierra es una aspiración moderna. Luego de los proyectos esbozados por filósofos, teólogos y pensadores, los hombres políticos reformistas intentaron ponerla en práctica —aun cuando fuera con objetivos distintos—, ya sea en el mundo británico o en Europa continental (Los países germánicos y nórdicos, Francia, la Península Ibérica o la Península Italiana). A finales del siglo XVIII, como sabemos, la revolución francesa tuvo un fuerte componente agrario y campesino. La nacionalización y venta de los bienes del clero y la nobleza, para neutralizar a las fuerzas hostiles al proceso revolucionario, desencadenó a corto y a mediano plazo una importante transferencia de tierras que también favoreció a determinados segmentos sociales del mundo campesino.

Bajo formas distintas y en diversos lugares, incluso en Rusia y en el continente americano, todo el siglo XIX estuvo signado por la cuestión agraria y la cuestión de la posesión de la tierra. Estas dos ambiciones fueron al mismo tiempo reivindicaciones socioeconómicas y políticas, muy ligadas en el contexto de los imperios al reconocimiento de los pueblos y naciones sin Estado y a la lucha por la libertad y contra la oppression nacional. El campesinado y su lucha por la tierra y contra los terratenientes e hidalgüelos, oriundos o extranjeros, se situaron muy a menudo en el corazón de los movimientos nacionales.

Pero hubo que esperar 1910 —hace exactamente un siglo—, para asistir a la aparición verdadera de la palabra « reforma agraria » en su acepción contemporánea. Y con la fórmula el contenido ; y con el contenido su aplicación política concreta, en el cuadro de un movimiento popular victorioso. Fue en México —en donde se produjo la primera revolución del siglo XX— y en la práctica de los movimientos campesinos, primero, y luego en la de los gobiernos revolucionarios, donde y cuando la réforma agrarian adquirió todo su sentido de lucha por el cambio en la propiedad de la tierra, por la reforma del régimen de trabajo, por la transformación del sistema de producción y distribución de la riqueza y también por el poder político del Estado. La consigna Tierra y Libertad que concretizó entonces, y durante varias décadas, las aspiraciones de los indios y campesinos mexicanos, se volvió la piedra de toque de los proyectos de reforma agraria concebidos y puestos en aplicación.

El siglo XX asistió a reformas agrarias, en plural; unas más radicals que las otras. Algunas propuestas por la lucha campesina y obrera revolucionaria, otras por Estados reformistas (a veces militares y/o nacionalistas), e incluso algunas fomentadas por proyectos políticos que quisieron preservar el orden y el sistema vigentes, contrarrestando movimientos revolucionarios en ciernes. Fue una tendencia mundialmente transversal, que no dispensó a casi ninguna región del planeta: la antigua Rusia, transformada en URSS ; China popular ; Europa central, meridional y oriental ; India e Indochina ; América Latina ; e incluso la Africa de antes y de después de las descolonizaciones.

La Sección Historia del Congreso Marx Internacional VI, Crisis, Revueltas, Utopías (http://netx.u-paris10.fr/actuelmarx/cm6/index6.htm), que tendrá lugar en París —entre el 22 y el 25 de septiembre de 2010—, propone reunir sobre esta problemática del mundo contemporáneo un Taller de trabajo y discusión, en una perspectiva histórica y marxista. Un encuentro abierto a los especialistas del estudio de la reforma agraria en el mundo. Pero también un encuentro para reflexionar sobre la realidad de los mundos rurales actuales y los desastres humanos y naturales provocados en el campo por varias décadas de un neoliberalismo mundializado y despiadado. También desearía interrogarse sobre el porvenir de una lucha por la reforma agraria, en su sentido original, que parece de aquí en adelante más actual que nunca.

Pablo F. Luna (Université Paris Sorbonne): pablo-fernando.luna@paris-sorbonne.fr

Agrarian Reforms: Past and Future

Reforms related to land ownership is a modern hope. After Philosophes, theologians and thinkers had earlier made their own proposals for change, political reformers then tried to implement their own specific reforms, their objectives being however different, whether in Britain or in Continental Europe (German and Scandinavian countries, France, the Iberian and Italian peninsulas). At the end of the 18th century, the French Revolution had a significant agrarian and peasant component, as we all know. The nationalization and sale of clergy and aristocratic land and property, which aimed at suppressing the forces hostile to the Revolutionary process, opened the door to important land transfers as a short-term or medium-term phenomenon, which also favorised some groups within the peasantry.

In different ways in the 19th century, various places, including Russia and America, were affected by issues related to land distribution and land ownership. These two phenomena also reflected socio-economic and political demands which within empires were often associated to the recognition of the peoples and nations without State deprived of self-determination and to their fight against oppression towards liberty. The peasantry and its fight for land against large land owners and foreign or national squires and hobereaux were thus recurrently caught in the middle of national movements.

It was however in 1910 —one hundred years ago only— that the concept of “agrarian reform” was for the first time formulated and given its contemporary meaning. And with the word, there followed its concrete political implementation, within a victorious popular movement. It was in Mexico that the first twentieth-century revolution took place with the development of peasant movements and the establishment of revolutionary governments. There, agrarian reforms reflected the fight for land ownership changes, for labour reforms, for the transformation of the production and redistribution of wealth, and also for state power. The slogan “Land and liberty” which symbolized then and for several decades Indian and Mexican peasants’ aspirations became the touchstone of all the agrarian reforms which were then proposed and implemented.

The 20th Century knew several agrarian reforms, some being more radical than others, proposed either by peasant or working-class revolutionary groups or by reformatory States (sometimes military and/or nationalist ones) and even political projects whose programs aimed at preserving the status quo in their current society and government in an attempt to counteract and downplay growing revolutionary movements. This world trend spared almost no part of the world from old Russia (now USSR), the People’s Republic of China, Central, Eastern and Southern Europe, India, Indochina, Latin America, and even Africa before and after decolonization.

The History Section of the VI International Marx Conference entitled Crisis, revolts, utopias (http://netx.u-paris10.fr/actuelmarx/cm6/index6.htm), which will meet in Paris — September 22nd – 25th, 2010 — proposes a workshop to discuss these contemporary issues using a Marxist and historical perspective. It welcomes specialists of the study of agrarian reforms in the world. The intent is also to engage in discussions on today’s rural reality and on human and natural disasters taking place in rural areas which experienced several decades of ruthless global neoliberal governance. The organizers will also encourage debates on the future of the campaign for agrarian reforms in its original form, one which seems more topical than ever.

Pablo F. Luna (Université Paris Sorbonne): pablo-fernando.luna@paris-sorbonne.fr

Organisateur  : Pablo F. Luna, pablo-fernando.luna@paris-sorbonne.fr 
Maître de conférences, Histoire, Université Paris Sorbonne, Paris IV

Président de séance : Béaur Gérard, Professeur, Histoire, GDR 2912, CRH – EHESS, CNRS
Président de séance : Piel Jean, Professeur, Histoire, Université Denis Diderot, Paris 7

Barkin David, barkin@correo.xoc.uam.mx  Professeur, Economie, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana de México, Xochimilco, Mexique

Pour reconsidérer le nouveau rôle de la paysannerie en Amérique latine: Les nouvelles réalités communautaires rurales

Partout où elles se trouvent en Amérique latine, les communautés agraires et indigènes réagissent devant le rétrécissement de possibilités résultant de l’effort gouvernemental d’internationalisation économique. Leur réponse articule des stratégies locales et régionales d’autonomie visant l’autosuffisance à plusieurs niveaux, pas seulement sur le plan alimentaire mais aussi sur le plan des infrastructures, des services sociaux (par exemple, la santé et l’éducation), de la préservation et de la réhabilitation de l’environnement. Cette communication voudrait apporter, à partir des expériences locales concrètes, une discussion sur les notions analytiques qui permettraient de comprendre ces stratégies productives et politiques, confrontées aux defies lancés aux communautés. Et ceci afin de mettre en relief une nouvelle approche pour élaborer des réponses « post-capitalistes ».

Bregianni Catherine, cbregiann@academyofathens.gr, Chercheuse-enseignante, Histoire, Université Ouverte Grecque, Grèce

Réforme agraire et monétisation de l’économie agraire en Grèce (de la fin du XIXe siècle à la Seconde Guerre mondiale)

Dans le but d’examiner la réforme agraire en Grèce, ayant eu lieu pendant la période de l’entre-deux-guerres, exprimant les objectifs politiques de la Première République Grecque, il a fallu observer premièrement l’évolution de la question rurale qui dans le pays s’est posée en même temps que celle de l’expansion territoriale. Ainsi, une première réforme a été appliquée au cours des années 1870, quand les terres nationales ont été partiellement divisées et octroyées aux paysans sans terre par le gouvernement libéral. La formation d’une classe sociale de petits propriétaires fonciers, orientée vers la culture des produits commerciaux, a ainsi été mise en œuvre, laquelle — en alliance avec les élites du Royaume — aurait pu soutenir les efforts de modernisation. Néanmoins, l’annexion de la Thessalie, en 1881, et ensuite celle de la Macédoine grecque en 1912, ont donné naissance à la question rurale, puisque le mode de production dominante y était la grande propriété foncière. Outil des Etats réformateurs grecs, la reforme agraire des années 1920 a provoqué la création de mécanismes d’incorporation de l’agriculture à l’économie nationale, tels que les coopératives agricoles et la diffusion du crédit agricole. Ainsi, dans le secteur agricole ont été créés des réseaux techniques qui avaient en même temps une fonction sociale, tels les réseaux bancaires et les réseaux de coopératives agricoles. La protection de l’agriculture a également induit l’articulation des instituts étatiques visant à implanter dans le monde rural les méthodes de culture rationnelles. Sans doute, la politique modernisatrice de l’Etat grec pour l’économie agraire visait aussi à anticiper les protestations paysannes et à contrecarrer l’influence croissante du parti communiste à la campagne (étant donné qu’en Grèce la classe ouvrière était fortement liée au monde rural). La faillite du schéma linéaire « réforme agraire – monétarisation de l’économie rurale – expansion des coopératives agricoles » à la fin des années trente a été souvent approchée par l’historiographie moderne grecque comme étant le résultat de l’activité bancaire. Ι lest néanmoins clair que les mécanismes bancaires ne sont pas autonomes vis-à-vis du marché. Cet aspect nous aidera à formuler nos conclusions afin de nous approcher au présent, en ce qui concerne la situation actuelle de l’agriculture grecque, sous le prisme du néolibéralisme.

Brocheux Pierre, pib531@wanadoo.fr  Professeur, Histoire, Université Denis Diderot, Paris 7

Réforme agraire et Développement au Viet Nam : contradiction ou complémentarité? (1953-1989)

Dans un but à la fois politique et économique les gouvernements au pouvoir dans le nord (République démocratique du Viet Nam) et dans le sud (République du Viet Nam) ont changé l’assiette foncière de leur paysannerie en appliquant des méthodes différentes. Les communistes du nord ont fait une révolution agraire à la manière chinoise avec reference à la lutte des classes, la mise en place de tribunaux populaires et sociodrames, expropriations et exécutions des personnes. Cette revolution agraire qui débute en 1953, utilise la violence physique et engendre des « erreurs » qui sont corrigées en 1956-1957. Cette « correction » donne lieu à une redistribution des terres, qui n’est que le prélude à la collectivisation des campagnes jugée nécessaire à l’essor de la grande agriculture moderne qui doit accompagner et soutenir l’industrialisation. Le gouvernement du Sud Viet Nam applique tardivement (1970-1971) des procédures légales et non violentes (sur le modèle japonais et taïwanais). La réforme renforce les rangs et le rôle économique de la petite et moyenne paysannerie qui fait échouer la collectivisation que les communistes veulent introduire dans le sud après avoir conquis et réunifié le pays (1975-1976). La réforme agraire du sud qui avait pour but politique de couper l’herbe sous les pieds des communistes, révèle son efficacité, elle est l’une des raisons déterminantes de la politique dite de Rénovation du gouvernement socialiste du Viet Nam. La Rénovation débute dans les campagnes et enclenche la dé-collectivisation, autrement dit un deuxième partage des terres. Le retour à l’exploitation familiale est aussi celui à l’économie de marché et à la spéculation commerciale et foncière. Cette évolution pose la question : le développement dans son sens classique ne favorise-t-il pas le retour à la concentration foncière et à la différenciation sociale dans campagnes ?

Cohen Arón, acohen@ugr.es  Professeur, Géographie,  Universidad de Granada, Espagne
Ferrer Amparo, aferrer@ugr.es  Maître de conférences, Géographie, Universidad de Granada, Espagne

Des « sans terre » aux « sans papiers » ? Réflexions à propos des campagnes andalouses

Au lendemain de la mort de Franco la revendication d’une réforme agraire restait un des signes programmatiques de l’opposition antifranquiste la plus active. Au début des années 1980, au cœur de la Transition politique, le PSOE cumulant le gouvernement central et ceux des toutes récentes «autonomies» de l’Espagne méridionale, inspirait la Carte de l’Autonomie Andalouse. Un des objectifs affichés était la « réforme agraire entendue comme la transformation (…) des structures agraires » dans la région. Cet objectif est resté complètement inédit, et assez vite la remise à jour du vocabulaire, dans le discours politique dominant et dans les normes, a effacé la moindre source de malentendu : point de recours désormais à d’autres catégories que celles de la « modernisation » et de l’ « entreprise » agricoles. Parallèlement, avec l’émergence de l’Espagne comme pays d’immigration, l’ « immigré » s’est quasiment substitué au « journalier » dans les discourse en vogue… et comme objet d’analyse. Les sujets sociaux et la nature des dossiers ne sont plus les mêmes. Les réclamations des « papiers pour tous » et contre l’ « exclusion sociale » ne laisseraient-elles plus de place aux « questions agraires »?

Estevam Douglas, douglasestevam@mst.org.br Représentant du MST, Brésil, Mouvement des paysans sans terre, Brésil

Les limites de la reforme agraire au Brésil et les conséquences du renforcement du modèle de l’agrobusiness

Cette communication analysera les conséquences du modèle brésilien de l’agrobusiness, à partir de plusieurs points de vue. D’abord, du point de vue social, avec la reproduction d’une population de paysans sans terres. Ensuite, du point de vue économique, en fonction de la concentration de richesse qu’un tel modèle engendre, de la réduction du nombre de travailleurs agricoles, des problèmes concernant les conditions de travail, ou à propos de l’absence d’une politique publique pour la production vivrière, mais aussi du point de vue du rôle du capital financier dans la production agricole et dans la concentration des terres. Ce modèle se configure dans le cadre d’un marché de plus un plus internationalisé et dans un contexte de crise énergétique où la production d’agro-carburants se présente comme un secteur économique de grande importance.

Figueroa A. Víctor  Professeur, Histoire, Universidad Marta Abreu, Las Villas, Cuba

Cuba : une expérience de développement rural

Cette communication présente et résume l’expérience cubaine dans la mise en œuvre de la Loi de la réforme agraire de 1959. Elle explique les conditions objectives historiques qui ont conduit à cet événement; elle présente aussi une analyse des premiers résultats obtenus. Cette communication fournit également les données statistiques illustrant la
situation avant et après la mise en œuvre de la loi, ainsi que les principales caractéristiques particulières du cas cubain.

Jacobs Susan, S.Jacobs@mmu.ac.uk  Reader, Sociologie, Manchester Metropolitan University, Grande-Bretagne

Gender and agrarian reforms : Critical reflections

Au cours des dernières années, lorsque l’on a parlé de la réforme agraire ou de la redistribution des terres, ce sont des sujets tels que la hausse des prix ou la sécurité alimentaires, ou l’appropriation des terres, qui ont concentré l’attention des spécialistes. Cette communication voudrait examiner l’impact des processus de réforme agraire sur les femmes, en particulier dans le modèle familial individuel. Dans des nombreux contextes et sous l’optique de la tenure et de la conduite des terres, les femmes se sont trouvées dans une situation défavorable, que ce soit du point de vue de la concession des titres de possession ou par la préférence accordée aux hommes comme chefs de famille. Cependant, des groupes familiaux conduits par des femmes ont souvent obtenu des terres et dans certaines réalités, en Chine, au Viet Nam ou dans certains pays d’Amérique latine, on a essayé de garantir les droits à la terre des femmes mariées. L’exploitation des terres ouvre aux femmes la possibilité de la réussite mais il leur est toujours difficile d’accéder à la terre sur un même plan d’égalité que les hommes. L’une des questions posées est celle de la forme que ces droits devraient prendre : la coutume traditionnelle est fréquemment défavorable aux femmes, mais l’accès individuel aux titres de possession débouche souvent, surtout parmi les pauvres, à la dépossession des terres. Cette communication examine ces faits et les tensions qu’ils ont provoquées, à partir de plusieurs études de cas, au Viet Nam, au Zimbabwe et au Brésil. Quel a été le rôle joué par le mouvement des femmes et les autres mouvements sociaux et comment devront-ils se consolider pour assurer, à l’avenir et sur le terrain, les droits des femmes?

Mesini Béatrice Mesini@mmsh.univ-aix.fr  Chargé de recherche, Sociologie politique, CNRS Telemme, Université d’Aix-en-Provence

Dynamiques et enjeux de la réforme agraire dans les forums sociaux 2000-2008

Inscrite dans une sociologie des mobilisations collectives, cette analyse décentrée sur des segments de luttes locales et globales, se propose d’explorer la diversité et l’originalité des revendications portées par les acteurs paysans et ruraux dans les forums sociaux – locaux, nationaux, régionaux, continentaux et internationaux – mais aussi « généralistes » et « thématiques » entre 2000 et 2008. C’est suite au tournant neoliberal opéré dans les années 1990 sous l’effet des programmes d’ajustements structurels impulsés par les grandes institutions financiers internationales (Banque Mondiale, Fonds Monétaire International, OMC…) que les sans-terre, journaliers, paysans familiaux, pêcheurs, peoples autochtones menacés, ruraux déplacés, femmes exploitées se sont en effet mobilisés sur la définition de leurs droits d’existence. Ils ont progressivement investi les forums sociaux, arguant de la centralité de leurs luttes dans les divers ateliers, plénières, séminaires, notamment autour des questions de domination et d’exploitation, dans les rapports de classe, de caste, de race et de genre. Autour du thème de la réforme agraire, les associations, organisations et collectifs structurent et amplifient le cadre interprétatif d’une negation globale des droits humains fondamentaux mais aussi de la disparition orchestrée des usages communautaires et droits collectifs – économiques, sociaux, culturels, cultuels, environnementaux – sur les terres. Dans un premier temps, nous montrerons comment ces acteurs ruraux hétérogènes ont accompli, à partir des années 1990, un travail de convergence et de transnationalisation des luttes, sur la base de diagnostics partagés en termes de privation, d’exclusion, de pauvreté, d’exploitation et de misère. Sont en particulier incriminés la privatisation des ressources et des terres, la concentration et l’internationalisation du capital foncier, le maintien de structures sociales agraires héritées de la colonisation et/ou recomposée de façon multiforme par le développement durable, le développement de l’ « agrobusiness », le brevetage du vivant, la destruction des communautés de vie, les migrations forcées – internes et
internationales -, l’exploitation et la violence dans les champs, ou encore la criminalisation et la répression des mouvements sociaux et des luttes syndicales. En second lieu, nous mettrons au jour le double processus d’intrication des luttes paysannes, indigènes/autochtones, mais aussi d’articulation des luttes rurales et urbaines, réactivé dans les Forums sociaux en termes d’autonomie, de sécurité et de souveraineté alimentaire, gagnant progressivement l’ensemble des nations, des continents et des régions. Enfin, nous montrerons que l’expressivité des revendications dans ces tribunes relève d’une pluralité de luttes locales, singulières et diversifiées et que la « co-vision » de la Pacha Mama redessine, à partir de la définition de devoirs envers la « Terre commune », le contour des droits d’existence civils, politiques, économiques, sociaux, et culturels.

Martínez Luciano (Intervention à confirmer)  Chercheur, Sociologie, FLACSO – Universidad de Quito, Equateur

Equateur, les nouveaux propriétaires après la réforme agraire

Mignemi Niccoló, mignic@gmail.com  Doctorant, Histoire, EHESS Paris – Università degli Studi di Milano, Italie

Italie 1920-1950 : Vers la réforme agraire ou la réforme de l’agriculture ?

Les lois de réforme agraire de 1950 en Italie ont été adoptées sous la pression d’un mouvement paysan qui a débuté dans le Mezzogiorno en 1943-1944 et s’est diffusé dans toutes les campagnes du pays. Le fascisme, ruraliste dans son discours, l’était beaucoup moins dans ses pratiques, en dissimulant le progressif appauvrissement des petits paysans derrière la propagande du retour à la terre. C’est donc en suivant le sort des paysans, au moins depuis le début des années Vingt, alors qu’ils vivent une période de prospérité, interrompue par les décisions prises par le régime et par la crise des années Trente, que l’on pourra comprendre dans la longue durée la signification de l’explosion sociale des campagnes dans l’après-guerre. Ici par ailleurs, si les forces antifascistes ont pris conscience que la résolution de la question agraire, toujours renvoyée depuis l’unité politique de 1861, ne pouvait plus être esquivée, deux conceptions s’affrontent alors : d’un côté la perspective d’une réforme agraire générale, avec la réorganisation du secteur primaire dans son ensemble qui pouvait remettre en cause son rôle même dans le modèle de développement, de l’autre côté l’idée d’une réforme minimale, voire seulement foncière, limitée soit au niveau géographique, soit dans ses ambitions.

Oliveira (de) Batista Fernando (Intervention à confirmer) Professeur, Agronomie, Universidade Politecnica de Lisboa, Portugal

La question de la terre aujourd’hui : Pour une comparaison entre le Portugal, le Brésil et l’Angola.

Robledo Ricardo, rrobledo@usal.es Histoire Professeur Universidad de Salamanca, Espagne

La réforme agraire de la Seconde République espagnole : Une question déjà vue ?

La recherche sur la réforme agraire, qui a été une sujet central dans l’historiographie espagnole, plus ou moins jusqu’en 1980, a été ensuite peu à peu négligée voire oubliée ; ce qui n’a pas été par ailleurs l’apanage de la seule Espagne. D’un côté, le travail d’Edward Malefakis (Reforma agraria y revolución campesina en la España del siglo XX, Barcelona, Ariel, 1972) a joué jusqu’à un certain point un rôle dissuasif, ce qui a fait que certaines recherches ultérieures se sont souvent contentées de paraphraser une œuvre qui a été publiée il y a environ quarante ans. D’un autre côté, l’orientation internationale de la politique économique, mettant en question les réformes agraires latino-américaines, n’a pas été un facteur favorable pour encourager une telle recherche. L’un des nombreux reproches adressés à la réforme agraire de la Seconde République espagnole a été son choix anti-latifundium, tout en mettant en opposition la rentabilité supposée de la grande exploitation face à l’inefficacité imputée au partage des terres. Ce serait l’un des aspects de la réforme agraire que les ingénieurs agronomes auraient mis en cause dans leurs rapports —des rapports très peu utilisés, par ailleurs. Mais il y aurait aussi un autre aspect, celui de la fonction sociale du latifundium, que l’on n’étudie pas d’une façon simultanée avec l’examen du fait réformateur, ce qui donne lieu à des perceptions partielles de la problématique. On néglige de préciser les avantages sociaux découlant de la perte par les propriétaires de leurs prérogatives politiques. En tout cas, la réforme agraire ne peut et ne doit être présentée comme une panacée et l’on peut tout autant apprendre de son échec — dans sa mise en application — que de son succès.

Roux Bernard, bernard.roux@agroparistech.fr Chercheur, Agronomie, CESAER – INRA Agrocampus Dijon

Au Portugal: Vie et mort d’une réforme agraire prolétarienne

La « révolution des œillets » d’avril 1974 au Portugal a été suivie par des mouvements sociaux et des réformes qui, dans un premier temps, orientèrent la société portugaise vers le socialisme. L’évolution rapide des rapports de force politiques, en faveur des conservateurs, ne permit pas que cette orientation perdure. La réalisation d’une réforme agraire puis sa destruction, tout cela dans un bref délai de quelques années, doivent s’interpréter dans ce cadre. C’est au cours de l’année 1975 que les ouvriers agricoles, dont une majorité de journaliers, de l’Alentejo et du Ribatejo, dans la moitié sud du pays, soutenus par les forces progressistes au pouvoir, ont réalisé l’occupation de plus d’un million d’hectares des latifundia et des grandes exploitations capitalistes. Cette réforme agraire peut être qualifiée de prolétarienne pour deux raisons : d’abord parce que son principal moteur a été le proletariat rural, depuis toujours soumis à l’exploitation de la bourgeoisie agraire mais auteur de nombreuses luttes pour l’amélioration des conditions de travail et des salaires ; ensuite, en raison de la nature collective des nouvelles unités de production créées, certaines d’entre elles dépassant 10 000 ha. Avec le basculement du pouvoir à droite la contre réforme agraire fut mise en œuvre dès 1977. Les terres furent rendues aux grands propriétaires et les unités de production des ouvriers agricoles détruites.

Siron Thomas, thomassiron@gmail.com  Doctorant, Anthopologie, EHESS Marseille

« Je ne demande pas d’argent pour cheminer ! » Le dirigeant paysan, la redistribution foncière et l’échange de loyautés politiques en Bolivie

« No pido plata para andar » : un dirigeant de la communauté Tierra Prometida signifait ainsi à ses « bases » qu’il n’exerçait pas sa fonction par intérêt pécuniaire et qu’en retour il était légitime à recevoir leur « appui ». C’est sur la dimension morale et politique du partage foncier, au sein d’un processus de réforme agraire, que je voudrais insister dans cette présentation. Je m’appuierai sur une recherche menée dans une communauté de « paysans sans terre » bolivienne (Tierra Prometida), fondée à la suite de la « prise » d’une propriété mise en vente par un « trafiquant de terre » et mobilisée depuis pour obtenir de l’Etat central un titre foncier et une personnalité juridique. Ce sont les deux buts ultimes de l’andar (cheminement) du dirigeant « au dehors » de la communauté (dans le monde de la politique). La « redistribution » de la terre se présente donc à la fois comme un transfert de droits fonciers entre une classe de possédants et une classe de travailleurs et comme un procès de distribution de droits et d’obligations au sein d’un corps politique. Le dirigeant paysan joue un rôle central dans le rapport redistributif qui s’instaure et se noue simultanément à l’échelle communale et nationale, rapport qui conditionne la transformation de la structure foncière à un échange de loyautés politiques parfois fluide et imprévisible.

Thivet Delphine,  Doctorante,Sociologie, IRIS – EHESS

Dynamiques et enjeux de la réforme agraire dans les forums sociaux 2000-2008

Inscrite dans une sociologie des mobilisations collectives, cette analyse décentrée sur des segments de luttes locales et globales, se propose d’explorer la diversité et l’originalité des revendications portées par les acteurs paysans et ruraux dans les forums sociaux – locaux, nationaux, régionaux, continentaux et internationaux – mais aussi « généralistes » et « thématiques » entre 2000 et 2008. C’est suite au tournant neoliberal opéré dans les années 1990 sous l’effet des programmes d’ajustements structurels impulsés par les grandes institutions financiers internationales (Banque Mondiale, Fonds Monétaire International, OMC…) que les sans-terre, journaliers, paysans familiaux, pêcheurs, peuples autochtones menacés, ruraux déplacés, femmes exploitées se sont en effet mobilisés sur la définition de leurs droits d’existence. Ils ont progressivement investi les forums sociaux, arguant de la centralité de leurs luttes dans les divers ateliers, plénières, séminaires, notamment autour des questions de domination et d’exploitation, dans les rapports de classe, de caste, de race et de genre. Autour du thème de la réforme agraire, les associations, organisations et collectifs structurent et amplifient le cadre interprétatif d’une negation globale des droits humains fondamentaux mais aussi de la disparition orchestrée des usages communautaires et droits collectifs – économiques, sociaux, culturels, cultuels, environnementaux – sur les terres. Dans un premier temps, nous montrerons comment ces acteurs ruraux hétérogènes ont accompli, à partir des années 1990, un travail de convergence et de transnationalisation des luttes, sur la base de diagnostics partagés en termes de privation, d’exclusion, de pauvreté, d’exploitation et de misère. Sont en particulier incriminés la privatisation des ressources et des terres, la concentration et l’internationalisation du capital foncier, le maintien de structures sociales agraires héritées de la colonisation et/ou recomposée de façon multiforme par le développement durable, le développement de l’ « agrobusiness », le brevetage du vivant, la destruction des communautés de vie, les migrations forcées – internes et internationales -, l’exploitation et la violence dans les champs, ou encore la criminalisation et la répression des mouvements sociaux et des luttes syndicales. En second lieu, nous mettrons au jour le double processus d’intrication des luttes paysannes, indigènes/autochtones, mais aussi d’articulation des luttes rurales et urbaines, réactivé dans les Forums sociaux en termes d’autonomie, de sécurité et de souveraineté alimentaire, gagnant progressivement l’ensemble des nations, des continents et des régions. Enfin, nous montrerons que l’expressivité des revendications dans ces tribunes relève d’une pluralité de luttes locales, singulières et diversifiées et que la « co-vision » de la Pacha Mama redessine, à partir de la définition de devoirs envers la « Terre commune », le contour des droits d’existence civils, politiques, économiques, sociaux, et culturels.

Tortolero Alejando, (Intervention à confirmer), Professeur, Histoire, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana de México, Iztapalapa, Mexique

La réforme agraire de la révolution mexicaine

(Sous réserve)Syndicaliste,  FRONT EZEQUIEL ZAMORA

Une réforme bolivarienne au Venezuela

Pablo F. Luna
Institut Hispanique
Université Paris Sorbonne
Pablo-Fernando.Luna@paris-sorbonne.fr

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