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Tag Archives: Marxist Educational Theory

Glenn Rikowski

MARXISM AND EDUCATION: FRAGILITY, CRISIS, CRITIQUE, NEGATIVITY, AND SOCIAL FORM(S)

 

 

 

This is a paper I prepared for the International Conference on Critical Education VIII, University of East London, Stratford Campus, 25 – 28 July 2018. The Abstract is below, and the paper itself can be viewed at Academia and at ResearchGate.

Glenn Rikowski

 

ABSTRACT

Why Marxism? Why Marxist educational theory? Through addressing these questions, this paper proclaims the importance of Marxism as a theory that intellectually disrupts and ruptures capitalist society and its educational forms. With reference to the work of John Holloway, it is argued that the significance of Marxism resides in its capacity to pinpoint fragilities and weaknesses in the constitution of capital. Grasping these fragilities in the rule of capital in contemporary social life sharpens the critical edge of any politics aimed at social transformation. Marxist educational theory plays an important role in this enterprise. These points are illustrated through consideration of the following ideas and phenomena: fragility, crisis, critique, negativity and social form(s). It is argued that fragility must be the starting point as Marxism is primarily a theory of capitalist weaknesses, and not the opposite: a theory of capitalist domination. Following Holloway, Marxism is a theory against society, rather than just another mainstream theory of society. Against Holloway, it is argued that the forms that fragilities for labour take also need to be understood. Paradoxically, our strength vis-à-vis capital is also the place for apprehending the fragilities and dependencies of labour. This vicious duality also exists in terms of crises in capitalism, and this flows into the phenomena of critique and negativity too. Finally, on the basis of this theorisation, the doors of capitalist hell are opened through a consideration of social forms in general and commodity forms in particular and their relations to educational processes and institutions. It is at this point that Marxist educational theory enters the stage, although in a transfigured form. In 1997, I wrote an article for the British Journal of Sociology of Education called ‘Scorched Earth: Prelude to Rebuilding Marxist Educational Theory’. Twenty-one years later, this paper can be viewed as my definitive first element in a programme of rebuilding Marxist educational theory.

 

Available from:

The full paper can be downloaded from Academia, at: https://www.academia.edu/37095004/Marxism_and_Education_Fragility_Crisis_Critique_Negativity_and_Social_Form_s_

The full paper can be downloaded from ResearchGate, at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326545788_Marxism_and_Education_Fragility_Crisis_Critique_Negativity_and_Social_Forms

 

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Glenn Rikowski

Deturpações: Notas críticas sobre Mercadorias e Educação

 

 

 

 

 

 

My article Deturpações: Notas críticas sobre Mercadorias e Educação has been published in Curriculo sem Fronteiras (Vol.18 No.1), a Brazilian journal.

 

The Resumo / Abstract are below, and you can get the article from either Academia of ResearchGate.

Glenn Rikowski

 

Resumo

Este artigo argumenta que as tentativas de entender a mercantilização da educação e da pesquisa educacional, sem recorrer ao maior pensador sobre as formas de mercadoria – Karl Marx -, inevitavelmente levam a confusões e a deturpações na teoria educacional. Isso é demonstrado por meio de uma crítica a um artigo recente de David Bridges (2017), no qual o autor se concentra na mercantilização na pesquisa educacional. Ao ignorar as ideias de Marx, e também de teóricos marxistas contemporâneos, que escrevem sobre a mercadoria e a mercantilização, Bridges não realiza distinções cruciais na análise da mercantilização e, além de confundir conceitos, confunde os fenômenos que lhes são correspondentes, os quais deveriam ser tratados separadamente. No caso, Bridges e outros teóricos educacionais convencionais, que evitam a referência à Marx e à teoria marxista, acabam criando uma série de falsas declarações em suas análises sobre a mercantilização educacional. Tais abordagens camuflam a capitalização da educação; isto é, os processos pelos quais as instituições educativas “se tornam capital”, o devenir do capital. Essas teorizações são superficiais e politicamente enganosas.

Palavras-chave: mercantilização da educação, marxismo, pesquisa educacional.

 

Abstract

This paper argues that attempts to understand commodification in education and educational research without recourse to the greatest thinker on commodity forms – Karl Marx – inevitably leads to confusion and misrepresentation in educational theory. This is demonstrated through a critique of a recent paper by David Bridges (2017) where he focuses on commodification in education research. By ignoring the ideas of Marx, but also contemporary Marxist theorists writing on the commodity and commodification, Bridges fails to make crucial distinctions in the analysis of commodification, and also conflates and confuses concepts and their corresponding phenomena that should be kept separate. In the event, Bridges, and other mainstream educational theorists who avoid reference to Marx and Marxist theory, end up creating a host of misrepresentations in their analyses of educational commodification. Such approaches camouflage the capitalisation of education; that is, educational institutions ‘becoming capital’, the becoming of capital. These theorisations are superficial and politically misleading.

Keywords: commodification of education, Marxism, educational research.

 

At Academia: http://www.academia.edu/36861405/Deturpa%C3%A7%C3%B5es_Notas_cr%C3%ADticas_sobre_Mercadorias_e_Educa%C3%A7%C3%A3o

 

At ResearchGate:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325766732_Deturpacoes_Notas_criticas_sobre_Mercadorias_e_Educacao

 

The paper is in English as: Misrepresentations: Critical Notes on Commodities and Education, which is available at Academia @: https://www.academia.edu/35799008/Misrepresentations_Critical_Notes_on_Commodities_and_Education

 

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Glenn Rikowski

INTERVIEW ON MARXISM, CRITICAL PEDAGOGY AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: DISCUSSIONS FOR A REVOLUTIONARY DISCOURSE

 

 

 

My interview with Aldo Ocampo Gonzalez, ‘Interview on Marxism, Critical Pedagogy and Inclusive Education: Discussions for a Revolutionary Discourse‘ is now available at Academia.

Aldo Ocampo Gonzalez is Director of the Center for Latin American Studies on Inclusive Education (CELEI), based in Santiago, Chile.

The website for CELEI is: http://www.celei.cl

The interview can be viewed on Academia at:  https://www.academia.edu/36752890/Interview_on_Marxism_Critical_Pedagogy_and_Inclusive_Education_Discussions_for_a_Revolutionary_Discourse

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Glenn Rikowski

EDUCATION CRISES AS CRISES FOR CAPITAL

 

By Glenn Rikowski

Visiting Fellow, College of Social Science, University of Lincoln, UK

 

This is the second of my two papers prepared for the International Seminar for Public Pedagogies on Crisis and Education at the University of East London (Stratford Campus) for 21st February 2018.

The paper shifts the focus on education crisis from a concern with crisis in education as an attack on public, state-financed education towards education crises education as crises for capital, for capitalist development.

 

This paper is now available at Academia: https://www.academia.edu/35730140/Education_Crises_As_Crises_For_Capital

It is also available at ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322642418_Education_Crises_As_Crises_For_Capital

 

Dr. Glenn Rikowski

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Glenn Rikowski

PRIVATISATION IN EDUCATION AND COMMODITY FORMS @ ACADEMIA AND RESEARCHGATE

 

My article, Privatisation in Education and Commodity Forms (Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, Volume 15 Number 3, December 2017, pp.29-56) is now available at Academia and at ResearchGate.

For Academia, see: https://www.academia.edu/35540404/Privatisation_in_Education_and_Commodity_Forms

For ResearchGate, see: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322144355_Privatisation_in_Education_and_Commodity_Forms

 

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Glenn Rikowski

Privatisation in Education and Commodity Forms

 

 

 

 

Glenn RikowskiVisiting Fellow, College of Social Science, University of Lincoln, UK

 

My article, Privatisation in Education and Commodity Forms has now been published in Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, Volume 15 Number 3, December 2017, pp.29-56.

The Abstract for the article is below.

The article can be accessed at: http://www.jceps.com/archives/3620

and http://www.jceps.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/15-3-2.pdf

 

ABSTRACT

To date research and scholarship on privatisation in education lacks critical depth and intensity. Stock concerns occupy contributions to the field: the effects of privatisation in education on teachers’ labour, pay and conditions of service; educational expenditure; resultant problems of planning at local and national levels; corruption (systemic, and by teachers); and on the curriculum and pedagogy. Additionally, many accounts have been largely descriptive, focusing on how privatisation takes place, or on threats to privatisation, or its insertion within education systems. Many case studies have been undertaken in this light, with sectoral, country-wide and local cases. There has been less emphasis on why privatisation in education occurs. Resistance to educational privatisation has been another common theme. Finally, work on educational commodification has been substantially dissociated from studies on privatisation in education. This paper builds on this last point. Writing and research on privatisation in education has largely avoided what it represents and calls forth: the development of capital, the deeper capitalisation of education. Furthermore, discussion on educational privatisation typically ignores its implication in the social production of labour-power. Therefore, with reference to Karl Marx, this contribution drives the critique of privatisation in education forward by focusing on commodity form(s) in education and their relations to the capitalisation of educational services. Consequently, the points of resistance to privatisation in education are sharpened as anti-capitalist weapons.

 

The URL for the whole issue is: http://www.jceps.com/archives/3644

The journal website is: http://www.jceps.com

 

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Glenn Rikowski

ICCE 8

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CRITICAL EDUCATION VIII

University of East London, Stratford, London, England

25th – 28th July 2018

Critical Education and Activism Against Neoliberalism / Authoritarian Neoconservatism in Education, State and Society

The International Conference on Critical Education (ICCE), previously held in Athens (2011, 2012), Ankara (2013), Thessaloniki (2014), Wroclaw, Poland (2015), London (Middlesex University) (2016) and Athens (2017) is a forum for scholars, educators and activists committed to social and economic justice.  The 8th ICCE: Critical Education and Activism Against Neoliberalism/ Authoritarian Neoconservatism in Education, State and Society will take place at University of London (UEL), London, 25-28 July 2018.

At a time of economic crisis, when education is under siege by neoliberal capitalism and by neo-conservatism and aggressive nationalism, when teachers and academics are being proletarianized, youth criminalized, civilised and caring societies being stripped of welfare and benefits and rights, schools and universities turned into commodities, at such a time, critical education, as a theory and as a movement, as praxis, is clearly relevant. International communities of critical educators and activists are working together, and with other movements, to build active resistance to these processes and are engaged in fostering educational and social change leading to a more just, equal and fair society.

The current economic, social, and political crisis, that has been ongoing for 30 years, is manifesting more deeply in education on a global scale. The crisis- part of, and resulting from, dominant neoliberal and neoconservative politics that are implemented and promoted internationally as ‘the only solution’, under the slogan ‘there is no alternative’ (TINA), have substantially redefined the sociopolitical and ideological roles of education. Public education is shrinking. It loses its status as a social right. It is projected as a mere commodity for sale while it becomes less democratic, de-theorised, de-critiqued.

Understanding the causes of the crisis, the particular forms it takes in different countries and the multiple ways in which it influences education, constitute important questions for all those who do not limit their perspectives to the horizon of neoconservative, neoliberal and technocratic dogmas. Moreover, the critical education movement has the responsibility to rethink its views and practices in light of the crisis, and in the light of social, political and educational resistance in different countries – and the paths that this crisis opens for challenging and overthrowing capitalist domination worldwide.

The International Conference on Critical Education (ICCE) – regularly attended by between 300 and 400 participants, provides a vibrant and egalitarian, non-elitist, platform for scholars, educators, activists, students and others interested in critical education and in contesting the current neo-liberal/ neo-conservative/ nationalist hegemony, to come together and engage in a free, democratic and productive dialogue. At this time of crisis when public education is under siege by neoliberalism, neo-conservatism and nationalism, we invite you to submit a proposal and to attend the Conference. We especially welcome new and emerging scholars / scholar-activists.

 

Speakers invited include:

Grant Banfield (Australia)

Dennis Beach (Sweden)

Sara Carpenter (Canada)

Hana Cervinlova (Poland)

Polina Chrysochou (Greece /UK)

Christian Chun (USA)

Alessio d’Angelo (UK)

Sandra Delgado (Canada/ Colombia)

Mustafa Durmus (Turkey)

Agnieszka Dzieminowicz-Bak (Poland)

Gail Edwards (UK)

Ramin Farahmandpur (USA)

Derek Ford (USA)

Nathan Fretwell (UK)

Panayota Gounari (USA)

George Grollios (Greece)

Carly Guest (UK)

Julia Hall (USA)

Dave Hill (UK)

Lee Jerome (UK)

Wei Jin (Peoples Republic of China)

Gianna Katsiampoura (Greece)

Nurcan Korkmaz (Turkey)

Ravi Kumar (India)

Alpesh Mairsuira (UK)

Tristan McCowan (UK)

Gyuri Meszaros (Hungary)

Louise Prendergast (UK)

Lotar Rasinski (Poland)

John Rice (Australia)

Glenn Rikowski (UK)

Leena Robertson (UK)

Juan R. Rodriguez (Spain)

Wayne Ross (Canada)

Rachel Seoighe (UK)

Kostas Skordoulis (Greece)

Spyros Themelis (UK)

Tamas Toth (Hungary/Poland)

Paolo Vittoria (Italy)

Josefine Wagner (Poland)

Terry Wrigley (UK)

Ahmet Yidiz (Turkey)

 

Conference Organisers: Dave Hill (Institute for Education Policy Studies) and Alpesh Maisuria (University of East London)

Contact: dave.hill@ieps.org.uk

 

See the website: http://www.icce2018.wordpress.com/

 

UEL Stratford

 

 

 

 

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Glenn Rikowski

CRITIQUE OF THE CLASSICAL THEORY OF EDUCATION CRISIS

 

 

Glenn RikowskiVisiting Fellow, College of Social Science, University of Lincoln, UK

 

 

 

 

This is a paper prepared for the International Centre for Public Pedagogies (ICPuP), International Seminar for Public Pedagogies at the University of East London for 21st February 2018. See the post below for details.

The paper is now available on Academia, see: https://www.academia.edu/35164258/Critique_of_the_Classical_Theory_of_Education_Crisis

 

ABSTRACT

The Classical Theory of Education Crisis is the default theory utilised by educational theorists for understanding the constitution and explanation of education crises in contemporary society. Following a brief outline of the concept of crisis, and the histiography of the notion of education crisis from the Second World War to the neoliberal recession of 1980-82, there is a an outline of The Classical Theory of Education Crisis as most fully expressed in Madan Sarup’s classic Education, State and Crisis: A Marxist Perspective (1982). The key aspect of the Classical Theory is that education crises are derivative of economic crises. This is followed by the main event: critique of the Classical Theory. Its reliance on structuralist thought (with associated determinism, functionalism and reductionism) and the inflow of economics imperialism are some of its key deficiencies. The Conclusion outlines ground still to be covered and the need to move beyond the Classical Theory of Education Crisis.

 

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Glenn Rikowski

CRISIS AND EDUCATION

 

Glenn Rikowski Visiting Fellow, College of Social Science, University of Lincoln, UK

 

 

International Centre for Public Pedagogies (ICPuP)

International Seminar for Public Pedagogies

UNIVERSITY OF EAST LONDON

Stratford Campus

Water Lane

London

E15 4LZ

 

21st February 2018

5.00 – 6.00pm

Room: 4.02

 

ABSTRACT

There are two parts to the presentation. Following a brief examination of the concept of ‘crisis’ the first part provides a critique of the Classical Theory of education crisis. This is the default theory of education crisis utilised by the majority of educational theorists and education activists today. Its starting point is that education crises are basically derivative of economic crises. The works of Marxists Brian Simon and Madan Sarup are important in fixing and consolidating the Classical Theory of education crisis. These will be explored in some depth.

The second part of the paper is more speculative. It seeks to pinpoint education crises as crises for capital. Thus, it is concerned with working on the weaknesses in the rule of capital (in education and in terms of its development) rather than focusing on how crises originating in the economy have deleterious effects for state-financed, public education. Two forms of education crises for capital are located, based on the mode of existence of commodity forms in educational institutions: crises of labour-power production; and crises in the ‘general class’ of commodities in educational settings. The implications for an anti-capitalist, anti-affirmationist politics of education based on this analysis are provided in conclusion.

 

Note: Two papers will be produced for this seminar: Critique of the Classical Theory of Education Crisis, and Education Crises As Crises for Capital. In the meantime, the following paper is useful: Crises, Commodities and Education: Disruptions, Eruptions, Interruptions and Ruptions, which is available at Academia: https://www.academia.edu/18511424/Crises_Commodities_and_Education_Disruptions_Eruptions_Interruptions_and_Ruptions

 

ADDENDUM – 22nd January 2018

The two papers for this ICPuP Seminar are now online at Academia:

Critique of the Classical Theory of Education Crisis  https://www.academia.edu/35164258/Critique_of_the_Classical_Theory_of_Education_Crisis

Education Crises As Crises For Capital  http://www.academia.edu/35730140/Education_Crises_As_Crises_For_Capital

 

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Crisis

 

BOOKS LAUNCH – TWO NEW BOOKS BY PROFESSOR MIKE COLE

 

Critical Race Theory and Education: a Marxist Response (Revised 2nd Edition)

And

New Developments in Critical Race Theory and Education: Revisiting Racialized Capitalism and Socialism in Austerity

Both books are published by Palgrave Macmillan: Marxism and Education Serieshttps://www.palgrave.com/br/series/14811

Professor Mike Cole (ICPuP)

Cass School of Education and Communities

University of East London

Stratford Campus, UEL, ED.2.02

25 May 2017

17:00-19:00

With an introduction from Professor John Preston (University of East London)

The books address the nature of Critical Race Theory, including its origins, its varieties and its major strength. This is accompanied by a Marxist critique. Particular attention is paid to two of CRT’s major tenets, its prioritising of “race” over class and its use of “white supremacy”. Also discussed is the perceived decline of “BritiCrit.” Racialized neoliberal capitalism in the era of austerity and immiseration is also addressed as are CRT and Marxist visions of the future. With respect to educational practice, there is a consideration of multicultural and antiracist education in the UK and the US, and of CRT and Marxist suggestions for classroom practice. Moving to the global perspective, it is argued that the world has become polarised and that while discussion of democratic socialism has become more mainstream, fascistic rhetoric and narratives and neo-fascism are becoming normalised. Anything, it is concluded, is now possible.

The launch will be followed by a beer and wine reception

RVSP: Diane Sharrier @ D.Sharrier@uel.ac.uk

Dr Mike Cole is Professor in Education, University of East London, Emeritus Research Professor in Education and Equality, Bishop Grosseteste University, Lincoln and Visiting Research Fellow, Centre for Social Sciences, Zaman University, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. His other recent and forthcoming books include Racism: A Critical Analysis (Pluto Press, 2016) and the edited collection, Education, Equality and Human Rights: Issues of Gender, “Race”, Sexuality, Disability and Social Class 4th Edition (Routledge, forthcoming, 2017).

Mike Cole

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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EDUCATION FROM BREXIT TO TRUMP … CORBYN AND BEYOND?

Marxism and Education: Renewing Dialogues (MERD – 19) Seminar

This coming Wednesday 3rd May 2017

10am-4pm

University of East London

Stratford Campus

Cass School of Education

Room ED4.02

At this 19th MERD seminar on Wednesday, we will review the emergent contemporary crises of capitalism. In this context, we will focus on education and educating across the social spectrum of institutional and wider social formation to progress class struggle, critique and action. Our four speakers have provided the following blurbs about their presentations:

 

Tony Green (UCL Institute of Education)

Educating the Educators and the Emergent Secular Crises of Contemporary Capitalism: From Brexit to Trump and Corbyn … to Snap Election … and Beyond?

The introduction aims to draw attention to a collection of issues and themes likely to occupy us during the day.  The broad and open-ended agenda is intended to be suggestive of potentially ‘educative’ contexts about how exchange values dominate use values, and where systemic shifting of value and power upwards in support of structures of global oligarchy and plutocratic elite class hegemony, is concurrent with ongoing secular crises of capitalism.   Is the apparent ever-rising tide of ‘prosperity’ contributing to human emancipation and flourishing?  We need to address the global capitalist system, and metabolism in its, tensions and contradictions, with complex and dynamic ramifications at local, regional, national and international levels.  The aim of these introductory remarks is to remind ourselves of current events and possible underlying dynamics that set analytic, strategic and tactical challenges… not least, the performative … during these ever-interesting times. Huge and urgent questions have to be addressed in specific and local contexts: Are all the cards being thrown into the air?  Are there inbuilt legitimation crises playing out across the institutional forms of politics? What are the prospects for the anthropocene? Time to act … now! What is to be done…?

 

Hillary Wainwright (Red Pepper Magazine Editor)

The importance of practical knowledge to the possibility of a new politics from the left

I’ll draw on themes associated with socialist humanist work of Gramsci, Williams and, Thompson, and against a background of recognising that evocations of the organised working class were thwarted too many times, including by leaderships that did not actually believe in the capacity of the supporters, to convince me. Radical social change is surely more than workplace organisation, radical leadership and a conventional political party of the left.  

 

Terry Wrigley (Visiting Professor at Northumbria University, editor International Journal Improving Schools, and co-coordinator of the Reclaiming Schools network)

England is an epicentre and laboratory for neoliberal education policy in advanced economies, with a unique mix of neoconservative ingredients. It has the tightest accountability framework (tests, league tables, Ofsted, performance pay etc.), extensive privatisation, a curriculum which systematically excludes critical social knowledge, and hegemonic discourses around ‘choice’, ‘standards’, ‘leadership’ and ‘social mobility’. 

For critical educators, the pressing challenges include:

  • Making critical theory and research knowledge available to a teaching profession increasingly restricted to short-term pragmatics;
  • Rethinking curriculum, assessment and pedagogy beyond binaries of ‘academic / vocational’ and ‘knowledge / practice’;
  • Protecting spaces for critical understanding and creativity; 
  • Critiquing the distortions of ‘social mobility’ and ‘closing the gap’ in socially just ways;
  • Finding educative responses to the social futures facing young people (Austerity, precarity, migration, militarism). 

 

Richard Hall (De Montfort University)

On the alienation of academic labour and the possibilities for mass intellectuality

As one response to the secular crisis of capitalism, higher education is being proletarianised. Its academics and students, encumbered by precarious employment, overwhelming debt, and new levels of performance management, are shorn of any autonomy. Increasingly the labour of those academics and students is subsumed and re-engineered for value production, and is prey to the vicissitudes of the twin processes of financialisation and marketization. At the core of understanding the impact of these processes and their relationships to higher education is the alienated labour of the academic, as it defines the sociability of the University. This paper examines the role of alienated labour in academic work, and relates this to feelings of hopelessness, in order to ask what might be done differently. The argument centres on the role of mass intellectuality, or socially-useful knowledge and knowing, as a potential moment for overcoming alienated labour.

Organised by Tony Green and Alpesh Maisuria

The seminar is free and open to all, no registration required. Please circulate widely and feel free to attend as much of the day as you possibly can.

Stratford campus is walkable from the nearest stations: Stratford (TfL line) / Stratford International, and Maryland (TfL line).

More travel information can be found here: https://www.uel.ac.uk/About/Finding-us

 

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Ruth Rikowski @ Academia: http://lsbu.academia.edu/RuthRikowski

 

 

New College, Oxford

AUTOGENOUS THEORIES OF EDUCATION CRISIS

 

A paper prepared for the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain (PESGB) Annual Conference, New College, Oxford, 31st March – 2nd April, 2017

Glenn Rikowski, Visiting Fellow, College of Social Science, University of Lincoln, UK

Abstract: ‘Crisis’ is a concept increasingly used in media reports on education. This paper argues that philosophers of education have a unique contribution to make regarding the nature and constitution of education crisis. Thus, they have a responsibility to take up the challenge of developing perspectives on education crises. Following examinations of the concept of crisis and The Marxist-oriented Classical Theory of Education Crisis (where education crises are derivative of economic ones), the paper forges an autogenous theory of education crisis through Robin Barrow’s (2011) précis of R.S. Peters’s concept of education. Some education crises are crises of education; not necessarily crises in education with origins elsewhere in society. For these forms of crisis, the concept of education itself should be the starting point for analysis. The paper opens up a new field of study for educational philosophers by indicating how education crises can emerge from within education institutions and settings.

 

My paper is now available at Academia: http://www.academia.edu/32222291/Autogenous_Theories_of_Education_Crisis and also at ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315646975_Autogenous_Theories_of_Education_Crisis

 

Glenn Rikowski at ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Glenn_Rikowski

Glenn Rikowski at Academia: http://independent.academia.edu/GlennRikowski