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Education System

Education System


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The Rise of Data in Education Systems: Collection, Visualization and Use


2013 paperback 160 pages US$56.00
ISBN 978-1-873927-32-8

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The growth of education systems and the construction of the state have always been connected. The processes of governing education systems always utilized data through a range of administrative records, pupil testing, efficiency surveys and international projects. By the late twentieth century, quantitative data had gained enormous influence in education systems through the work of the OECD, the European Commission and national system agencies. The creation and flow of data has become a powerful governing tool in education. Comparison between pupils, costs, regions and states has grown ever more important.

The visualization of this data, and its range of techniques, has changed over time, especially in its movement from an expert to a public act. Data began to be explained to a widening audience to shape its behaviours and its institutions. 

The use of data in education systems and the procedures by which the data are constructed has not been a major part of the study of education, nor of the histories of education systems. This volume of contributions, drawn from different times and spaces in education, will be a useful contribution to comparative historical studies.


Martin Lawn. Introduction. The Rise of Data in Education

Martin Lawn. The Internationalisation of Education Data: exhibitions, tests, standards and associations

Marcelo Caruso. Policing Validity and Reliability: expertise, data accumulation and data parallelisation in Bavaria, 1873-1919

Noah W. Sobe. Educational Data at Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century International Expositions: ‘accomplished results’ and ‘instruments and apparatuses’

Joakim Landahl & Christian Lundahl. (Mis-)Trust in Numbers: shape shifting and directions in the modern history of data in Swedish educational reform

Ian Grosvenor & Siân Roberts. Systems and Subjects: ordering, differentiating and institutionalising the modern urban child

Inés Dussel. Counting, Describing, Interpreting: a study on early school census in Argentina, 1880-1900

Joyce Goodman. Visualising Girls’ Secondary Education in Interwar Europe: Amélie Arató’s L’Enseignement secondaire des jeunes filles en Europe

Romuald Normand. Governing Population: the emergence of a political arithmetic of inequalities in education. A Comparison Between the United Kingdom and France


Related titles

PISA, Power, and Policy: the emergence of global educational governance HEINZ-DIETER MEYER & AARON BENAVOT

Europeanizing Education: governing a new policy space MARTIN LAWN & SOTIRIA GREK


PO Box 204, Didcot, Oxford OX11 9ZQ, United Kingdom 
Specialist publishers of Comparative and International Education. 
Please see our online catalogue at 
for bibliographical details, contents pages, and a secure order form.


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Europeanizing Education


Published recently…

Europeanizing Education: governing a new policy space


2012 paperback 172 pages US$48.00
ISBN 978-1-873927-61-8

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The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education acrossEuropeis a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. Europeanizing Education describes the origins of European education policy, as it metamorphosed from cultural policy to networking support and into a space of comparison and data. The authors look at the early development and growth of research networks and agencies, and international and national collaborations. The gradual increase in the velocity and scope of education policy, practice and instruments acrossEuropeis at the heart of the book.

The European space of education, a new policy space, has been slowly coaxed into existence; governed softly and by persuasion; developed by experts and agents; and de-politicized by the use of standards and data. It has increasing momentum. It is becoming a single, commensurable space on a rising tide of indicators and benchmarks. The construction of policy spaces by the European Union makesEuropegovernable: policy spaces have to be mobilized by networks of actors and constructed by comparative data. They are the result of transnational flows of people, ideas and practices across European borders; the direct effects of European Union policy; and, finally, the Europeanizing effect of international institutions and globalization.

The European space of education and research has become a new place of work through interconnected institutions, networks and companies, and it is being constructed through the flow of policy ideas, knowledge and practices from place to place, sector to sector, organization to organization, and across borders. This book will be useful to any scholar of the new arena of study, the European Space of Education.


1 Introduction
A Single Space? Comparison and Complexity; Networks and Standards; The Creation of the European Education Space; The Importance of ‘Soft’: networks, space and meaning; Concluding: main points of the argument

2 Research and Policy in European Education: the first stage
Europe in Competition; Mid-Twentieth-Century European Research Formation; Research Projects; Developing European Research Institutions and Skills; UNESCO and the Comparativists; The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) and Surveys; The International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) and Educational Statistics; The Idea of a Common Project; Janne Report; Conclusion

3 Chaotic Uniformity: the rise of the European dimension in education, 1970-2000
Governing by Cooperation; Culture and Affinity; From Chaotic Uniformity to Networked Cooperation

4 Governing Education: the use of persuasive and unobtrusive power in the European Union
Introduction; Governing Associations Softly; Associations and Networks; Experts and Associations – EERA; Building a Platform: fluidity and stability in EERA; Finding a Platform – EERA; Idea of the Space and the Platform; Conclusion

5 Governance by Experts and Standards?
Using Experts; Ideas Brokers; Building a System through Standards; Assembling a Learning Space: data and platforms; Final Point

6 Second Wave Policy in European Union Education, 2000-2010
From Education to Learning: the role of data; Measuring Europe:Lisbon (2000) and after; ‘Key Data on Education inEurope’: an overview of the Eurydice Reports of 2000, 2002 and 2005; Conclusion

7 The New Political Work of Calculating Education
Constructing Data: European agencies; Eurostat; Eurydice; Constructing Europe: the role of actors; Concluding Comments

8 The OECD as an Agent of Europeanization in Education: the impact of international education assessment tools
Introduction; OECD and the Politics of Comparison; The Programme for International Student Assessment; The Case of Finland; The Case of Germany; The Case of the United Kingdom; PISA and Europe; Discussion

9 School Self-evaluation as Travelling Policy across Europe: the role of the Scottish Inspectorate and SICI
Introduction; From the View of the Local: school self-evaluation inScotland; SSE as a Travelling Policy: the Role of SICI; SICI: the beginnings; Self-Evaluation and SICI; Discussion

10 Conclusions

Notes – References – Notes on the Authors

Related titles:

Globalisation and Europeanisation in Education ROGER DALE & SUSAN ROBERTSON

An Atlantic Crossing? The Work of the International Examination Inquiry, its Researchers, Methods and Influence MARTIN LAWN

Materialities of Schooling: design, technology, objects, routines MARTIN LAWN & IAN GROSVENOR

Modelling the Future: exhibitions and the materiality of education MARTIN LAWN

PO Box 204, Didcot, Oxford OX11 9ZQ, United Kingdom,

Specialist publishers of Comparative and International Education.
Please see our online catalogue at for bibliographical details, contents pages, and a secure order form.


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