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PASTORAL – ART @ COMPOTES – FOREST GATE

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By Robert White

Compôtes

118 Woodgrange Road, Forest Gate, London, E7 0EW

Bakery, deli, café.

On Friday 12th February 2016, I went to see the opening of the Pastoral art exhibition at Compôtes in Forest Gate, east London. There was some wonderful art on display. The exhibition was curated by Gabrielle Luca Iozzi and featured exhibits by the following artists: Giuseppe Iozzi, Sabela Mahlangu, Fungai Marima, Jose Pindian, and Robert White.

Pastoral is open free to view at Compôtes until March 12th 2016.

The cakes and soup at Compôtes are particularly good. The freshly baked bread is top notch. Compôtes is close to both Forest Gate and Wanstead Park train stations.

Glenn Rikowski: 18th February 2016

SDC14921

Giuseppe Iozzi

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‘Human Herbs’ – a song by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

Glenn Rikowski @ Academia: http://independent.academia.edu/GlennRikowski

The Failure of Capitalism

The Failure of Capitalism

MARX AND PHILOSOPHY REVIEW OF BOOKS – JULY 2015

New reviews and an updated list of books for review recently published online in the Marx and Philosophy Review of Books

Chris Arthur on Carver and Blank on “The German Ideology”

Hans Despain on David Weil, The Fissured Workplace

Mike Wayne on Walter Benjamin, Radio Benjamin

Bart Zantvoort on David Graeber, The Utopia of Rules

Joshua Moufawad-Paul on The FBI’s Secret War on America’s Maoists

Gary Roth on Richard Sennett, Together

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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Sean Sayers, Editor
Marx and Philosophy Review of Books
66 Havelock Street, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1NP, UK
http://www.marxandphilosophy.org.uk/reviewofbooks/ 
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First Published in http://www.historicalmaterialism.org/news/distributed/marx-and-philosophy-review-of-books-13

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‘Human Herbs’ – a song by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

Glenn Rikowski @ Academia: http://independent.academia.edu/GlennRikowski

Volumizer: http://glennrikowski.blogspot.com

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Movemets of the Social

Movemets of the Social

MARX AND PHILOSOPHY SOCIETY REVIEW OF BOOKS – 10 JUNE 2015

New reviews and an updated list of books for review recently published online in the Marx and Philosophy Review of Books

  • Tony Mckenna on David Baronov, The Dialectics of Inquiry
  • Idir Ouahes on Chomsky, Masters of Mankind
  • Tony Lack on Bourdieu’s lectures On the State
  • Nicolina Montessori on Andrew Sayer, Why We Can’t Afford the Rich
  • Mike Haynes on Selwyn, The Global Development Crisis
  • Brian Elliott on Kang, Walter Benjamin and the Media

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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Sean Sayers, Editor
Marx and Philosophy Review of Books
66 Havelock Street, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1NP, UK
http://www.marxandphilosophy.org.uk/reviewofbooks/ 
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First published in http://www.historicalmaterialism.org/news/distributed/marx-and-philosophy-review-of-books-12***END***

‘Human Herbs’ – a song by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

Glenn Rikowski @ Academia: http://independent.academia.edu/GlennRikowski

Volumizer: http://glennrikowski.blogspot.com

Rikowski Point: http://rikowskipoint.blogspot.co.uk/

Critique of Political Economy

Critique of Political Economy

MARX AND PHILOSOPHY REVIEW OF BOOKS

New reviews and an updated list of books for review recently published online in the Marx and Philosophy Review of Books

  • Michael Maidan on FoucaultLectures on the Will to Know
  • Pete Green on books by Dunn and Radice on global capitalism
  • Sean Ledwith on RothGreece What Is to Be Done?
  • Nathan Wood on Naomi KleinThis Changes Everything
  • Alex Cistelecan on Marxism and the Critique of Value
  • Daniel Fraser on Fredric JamesonThe Antinomies of Realism

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Marx and Philosophy Society: http://marxandphilosophy.org.uk/society

Published in http://www.historicalmaterialism.org/news/distributed/marx-and-philosophy-review-of-books-11

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‘Human Herbs’ – a song by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

Glenn Rikowski @ Academia: http://independent.academia.edu/GlennRikowski

Volumizer: http://glennrikowski.blogspot.com

Rikowski Point: http://rikowskipoint.blogspot.co.uk/

We Are the Crisis

We Are the Crisis

MARX AND PHILOSOPHY REVIEW OF BOOKS: FEBRUARY 2015

New reviews and an updated list of books for review recently published online in the Marx and Philosophy Review of Books

  • Jeff Noonan on Alain Badiou and Jean-Claude Milner, Controversies
  • Jay Starr on Wolfgang Streeck, Buying Time
  • Devin Lefebvre on Jacques Rancière, Figures of History
  • Bart Zantvoort on Slavoj Žižek, Absolute Recoil
  • Michael Arfken on Kieran Durkin on Erich Fromm
  • Claudia Wirsing on Michael Quante, Die Wirklichkeit des Geistes

To receive notification of new reviews and comments when they appear join the Marx and Philosophy Society’s email list or follow us on facebook or twitter.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Sean Sayers, Editor

Marx and Philosophy Review of Books

66 Havelock Street, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1NP, UK

http://www.marxandphilosophy.org.uk/reviewofbooks/

 

First Published in http://www.historicalmaterialism.org/news/distributed/marx-and-philosophy-review-of-books-9

 

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‘Human Herbs’ – a song by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

Glenn Rikowski @ Academia: http://independent.academia.edu/GlennRikowski

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Online Publications at The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk/?page=pub&sub=Online%20Publications%20Glenn%20Rikowski

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Karl Marx

Karl Marx

MARX AND PHILOSOPHY REVIEW OF BOOK – OCTOBER 2014

New reviews and an updated list of books for review recently published online in the Marx and Philosophy Review of Books

 

  • Tony Mckenna on Brian S Roper, The History of Democracy
  • Malise Rosbech on Heather Brown, Marx on Gender and the Family
  • Kate Soper on Rachel Holmes’ biography of Eleanor Marx
  • Paul Blackledge on Owen Jones on The Establishment
  • Jamie Melrose on Faubion (ed.) Foucault Now
  • Tim Walters on Chris McMillan on Žižek and Communist Strategy

 

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First Published in http://www.historicalmaterialism.org/news/distributed/marx-and-philosophy-review-of-books-8

 

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‘Human Herbs’ – a song by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

Glenn Rikowski @ Academia: http://independent.academia.edu/GlennRikowski

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Online Publications at The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk/?page=pub&sub=Online%20Publications%20Glenn%20Rikowski

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Marx's Grave

Marx’s Grave

HISTORICAL MATERIALISM 22.2

Historical Materialism: Research in Critical Marxist Theory

HM 22.2 is Now Online

See: http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/1569206x/22/2

 

CONTENTS:

 

The Blood of the Commonwealth

Author: David McNally

pp.: 3–32 (30)

 

Editorial Introduction

Author: Giorgio Cesarale

pp.: 33–43 (11)

 

Towards a Theory of the Integral State

Author: Bruno Bosteels

pp.: 44–62 (19)

 

Escaping the Throne Room

Author: Ian McKay

pp.: 63–98 (36)

 

Philosophy of Praxis, Ideology-Critique, and the Relevance of a ‘Luxemburg-Gramsci Line’

Author: Jan Rehmann

pp.: 99–116 (18)

 

Gramsci’s ‘Non-contemporaneity’

Author: Fabio Frosini

pp.: 117–134 (18)

 

Neither an Instrument nor a Fortress

Author: Panagiotis Sotiris

pp.: 135–157 (23)

 

Gramsci without the Prince

Author: Martin Thomas

pp.: 158–173 (16)

 

The Great Canadian Slump, 1990–92

Author: Geoffrey McCormack

pp.: 174–218 (45)

 

Book review: Ontology of Production: Three Essays, written by Nishida Kitarō

Author: Viren Murthy

pp.: 219–236 (18)

 

Book review: Utilitarianism and the Art School in Nineteenth-Century Britain, written by Malcolm Quinn

Author: Dave Beech

pp.: 237–256 (20)

 

Book review: Spatiality, Sovereignty and Carl Schmitt: Geographies of the Nomos, written by Stephen Legg

Author: Marijn Nieuwenhuis

pp.: 257–285 (29)

 

Notes on Contributors

pp.: 287–289 (3)

Back Issues

pp.: 290–291 (2)

 

Volume 22, Issue 2, 2014

ISSN: 1465-4466

E-ISSN: 1569-206X

 

First Published in http://www.historicalmaterialism.org/news/distributed/hm-22.2-now-online

 

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‘Human Herbs’ – a song by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

Glenn Rikowski @ Academia: http://independent.academia.edu/GlennRikowski

Glenn Rikowski @ ResearchGate: http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Glenn_Rikowski?ev=hdr_xprf

Online Publications at The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk/?page=pub&sub=Online%20Publications%20Glenn%20Rikowski

The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk

Rikowski Point: http://rikowskipoint.blogspot.co.uk/

 

Karl Marx

Karl Marx

MARX AND PHILOSOPHY REVIEW OF BOOKS: SEPTEMBER 2014

New reviews and an updated list of books for review recently published online in the Marx and Philosophy Review of Books

  • Margaux Portron on Mark Neocleous, War Power, Police Power
  • Kevin Anderson on Gilbert Achcar’s Radical Exploration of the Arab Uprising
  • Nathaniel Barron on Ernst Bloch and the Future of Utopia
  • Sean Ledwith on Robert Lanning, In the Hotel Abyss
  • Dylan Bailey on Sloterdijk, Philosophical Temperaments
  • Bill Jefferies on The Preobrazhensky Papers

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First published in http://www.historicalmaterialism.org/news/distributed/marx-and-philosophy-review-of-books-7

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‘Human Herbs’ – a song by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

Glenn Rikowski @ Academia: http://independent.academia.edu/GlennRikowski

Glenn Rikowski @ ResearchGate: http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Glenn_Rikowski?ev=hdr_xprf

Online Publications at The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk/?page=pub&sub=Online%20Publications%20Glenn%20Rikowski

The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk

 

Heather Brown

Heather Brown

MARXISM AND FEMINISM: WAS MARX A ‘CLASS DETERMINIST’?

MARX ON GENDER AND THE FAMILY: A CRITICAL STUDY

Marx on Gender and the Family: A Critical Study
By Heather A. Brown
Haymarket Books, 2013
232 pp.

Review by Barry Healy

September 1, 2014 – Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal – http://links.org.au/node/4028

For the most part the Marxist movement has a had a troubled relationship with the women’s liberation movement. While some Marxists (such as those organised in Australia’s Socialist Alliance) have no problem with feminism, others have choked on the thought of a rebellious movement that does not fit neatly into their paradigm of a workers-led revolution.

It was not always so. Between 1917 and 1927, the heyday of the Russian Revolution, the Soviet government passed many laws to give equality between men and women. For example, abortion became free and legal and anti-homosexual laws were repealed.

After the degeneration of the revolution into Stalinism things became very different. As Leon Trotsky put it, the bureaucracy “began singing panegyrics to the family supper and the family laundry, that is, the household slavery of women”.

Capital punishment was restored for abortion, thus, Trotsky said, “returning women to the status of pack animals”.

In lock-step, the world’s self-described communist parties, the most powerful left segments of the working class, advanced reactionary ideas about women’s place in the world and the revolutionary movement. Women were to be auxiliaries to male revolutionaries, they said, and bountiful mothers within happy families.

Stalinism promised a sort of “trickle down” socialism. First the (male) workers would benefit, then others. Unfortunately, some Trotskyists, in their anxiety to be more “pro-worker” than the Stalinists adapted versions of that approach.

Was Marx a class determinist?

Given all that, various feminist thinkers have had an, at best, ambiguous relationship with Marxism. Some have woven elements of Marxism together with, say, psychoanalytical theory to overcome what they see as Karl Marx’s, at best, gender blindness. They erected an alternative theory of patriarchy, which stands timelessly above society, dictating the unfolding of history.

To what extent can this conflict be attributed to Karl Marx himself? Was his a dour vision of human liberation where stalwart, proletarian men would achieve socialism and, under their paternal gaze, women and others would then step forward to take control of their own destinies?

US socialist Heather Brown has performed a great service in this short, yet detailed survey of all of Marx’s writings on women and gender – including some that have never before been published in any language. Marx did not just analyse economics and history, she demonstrates, he interrogated all forms of literature (even police files) to tease out the threads of social oppression.

She asks if there is “the possibility of a Marxist feminism that does not lapse into economic determinism or privilege class over gender in analysing contemporary capitalist society?” She compares and contrasts Marx with a wide range of feminist writers, and says that there is enough in Marx indicating “the interdependent relationship between class and gender without fundamentally privileging either in his analysis”.

While Marx was a product of his Victorian times and never developed an explicitly unified theory on women’s liberation, she shows that throughout his life he thought about the matter. Based on this, Brown argues that “there are a number of potential starting points for a less deterministic and less gender-blind form of Marxism”.

The diverse — and surprising — nuggets that Brown has unearthed reveal that Marx’s thoughts have a refreshingly modern feel. She demonstrates that as he evolved as a thinker his insights became more penetrating. Moreover, he incorporated his ideas into his political activity.

Early writings

Marx was contemporary with other socialists who thought that women are naturally inferior to men. However, from his earliest writings, Marx dismissed the entire notion that “nature” is static. In his 1844 Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts he pointed out that nature and culture are dialectically linked and mutually condition each other.

More than that, the Manuscripts say that the position of women can be used as a measure of the development of a given society. He was not calling for men to liberate women, he was arguing that in going beyond capitalism our society will have to develop new relations that transcend alienation.

That the family form is not a “natural” social arrangement is further elucidated in The German Ideology (co-authored with Engels). The implication is that women’s oppression can be ended as society changes and women can enter more into the world of work.

Following another line of thought in The Holy Family, Marx criticises a novel by French writer Eugene Sue called Les Mysteres de Paris. Sue created a character called Fleur de Marie who is saved from her life of prostitution by a prince and enters a convent, where she dies shortly afterward.

Marx reacted sharply to Sue’s Catholic moralising about prostitution and sexuality in general. “Despite her situation”, Brown writes, “Marx does not see her a merely a powerless victim, but as possessing agency”.

Marx saw Fleur de Marie as an example of the yearning to be fully human and he slams the paternalistic prince for failing “to grasp the general condition of women in modern society as an inhuman one”.

As part of his journalism Marx translated into German writings by Jacques Peuchet on suicide. Peuchet was the French police archivist and his writings on unusual cases were very popular (inspiring, among other things, Alexander Dumas to write The Count of Monte Cristo).

Marx chose parts of Peuchet dealing with the suicide of middle-class women. Marx’s personal leanings come through via the parts he chose to delete and in subtle additions of his own comments.

These show Marx as far removed from a doctrinaire, class-bound theorist. Michel Lovy also reviews these writings in the March 2002 Monthly Review where he says Marx demonstrates an “understanding of the evils of modern bourgeois society, of the suffering that its patriarchal family structure inflicts on women, and of the broad and universal scope of socialism”.

Lovy points out that the most interesting part of this writing is that Marx focuses on women “driven to desperation and suicide by bourgeois society”. Peuchet’s accounts demonstrated to Marx that even members of the bourgeoisie are alienated.

Brown says Marx argues in these writings for total social transformation, because “economic levelling or redistribution are not enough to create a better society, so long as capitalist social relations remain in place”.

The family and its discontents

The alienation that drives some to suicide is to be found in the family sphere as well as the public, Marx says. But more than just pointing to the social causes of individual despair, Marx goes so far as to see suicide as a form of resistance in an oppressive society!

He was not recommending suicide, rather he was reading into it the signs of resistance as much as it was a symptom of misery.

Most tellingly, Marx writes that the French Revolution did not topple all tyrannies. “The evil which one blames on arbitrary forces exists in families, where it causes crises, analogous to those of revolutions”. He does not state it, but that analysis extends out into the future socialist revolution, contra Stalinism.

The bourgeois family is famously lambasted in The Communist Manifesto, where Marx and Frederick Engels mock bourgeois pretentions and argue that the very conditions that had produced the bourgeois family were disappearing among proletarians. Accordingly, the father’s role and power was diminished, opening up the opportunity for a different form of the family.

Brown points to a number of references to women in Capital, Marx’s magnum opus and in his earlier draft material for Capital. In particular, Marx discusses the way that capitalists delighted in drawing women and children into factories because, as specially oppressed people, they could be paid less.

However, Marx saw the dialectical aspects of this process. As women became proletarians they gained power in their private lives and moved out of the control of their fathers and male relatives. This process can be observed today, for example, in the international call centres that have been established in India.

Marx recognised all the pain and tribulations in this. The long hours and shift work undermined traditional family structures and many people suffered. However, women’s economic power led towards an egalitarian form of the family with men.

While not delving deeply into it, in Capital Marx critiques the notion of productive and unproductive labour under capitalism. For the bourgeoisie, only labour that gives them profit through the creation of surplus value is productive. But Marx says that is one-sided as the production of use values is important as well.

That opens up the question of women’s labour in the home, which is essential to the very existence of labour. Marx never took up the question of wages for housework but his ideas regarding women’s independence showed an evolution over time.

Development of Marx’s thinking

When writing about the Preston strikes in 1853-54, Marx was uncritical of the strikers’ demand for a family wage, which implies women as dependent appendages of men. By the 1860s however, he was arguing for equal status for women within the structures of the First International.

This reflected his general thinking about the equality of women. “From the beginning of the First International to the end of his life”, Brown writes, “Marx supported incorporating women in the workforce as equals”.

In 1858, Marx returned to the oppression of women in bourgeois families when he wrote about the case of an English aristocrat, Lady Bulwer-Lytton, who, following the breakdown of her marriage, was declared insane at the instigation of her estranged husband. As in his earlier ruminations about suicide, Marx is clearly describing the bourgeois family as a site of oppression of women.

Those pieces, which were written for the New York Herald Tribune, also contain traces of a critique of the use of labelling mental illness as a tool of social control.

After the heroic spirit shown by women in the Paris Commune Marx demonstrated a keener appreciation of the demands of women. In France the paternalistic ideas of Proudhon were still in evidence in the labour movement. But, in opposition, Marx wrote in 1880 that “the emancipation of the productive class is that of all human beings without distinction of sex or race”.

Marx’s notebooks from the final years of his life contain some of the most interesting developments of his thought. He was reading about the development of many societies, including Indonesia, native American groups, Russia, ancient Greece and India. In these notes are scattered thoughts about the role of women in the historical process.

After Marx’s death Engels discovered these notes, especially those on Henry Morgan’s Ancient Society, the pioneering work of anthropology. Using these, Engels produced The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, in which he argues that men and women had lived in equality in pre-class society. Engels, taking Morgan at face value and going further, describes the rise of class society as bringing about the “world historic defeat of the female sex”.

Brown, however, finds a more nuanced appraisal of Morgan in Marx. Marx did not accept Morgan uncritically, he compared and contrasted him with other writers. Also, his underlining and emphasises show that he was far less condescending towards women than Morgan.

Brown says that Engels “provides a deterministic assessment of the beginning of class and gender-conflict”. Engels emphasises the role of men’s need to transfer property rights to their children as central to the oppression of women, whereas, Brown says, for Marx women’s oppression involves far more than that.

Brown highlights Marx’s dialectical method in being vital in understanding gender and the family. She says that Marx did not apply ahistorical philosophical categories to reality, he empirically analysed the world and utilised categories that he discovered there.

“While Marx’s theory remains underdeveloped in terms of providing as account that includes gender as important to understanding capitalism”, Brown says, “his categories, nonetheless, lead in the direction of a systematic critique of patriarchy as it manifest itself in capitalism since he is able to separate out the historically-specific elements of patriarchy from a general form of women’s oppression, as it has existed throughout much of human history”.

This short, comprehensive handbook will no doubt provide the basis for a new wave of feminist engagement with Marxism and is a clarion call for all those who regard themselves as Marxists to re-evaluate their ideological conceptions.

Heather Brown allows us all to read Marx with new eyes.

**END**

‘Human Herbs’ – a song by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

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Online Publications at The Flow of Ideas: http://www.flowideas.co.uk/?page=pub&sub=Online%20Publications%20Glenn%20Rikowski

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Daniel Bensaid

Daniel Bensaid

PAUL LE BLANC REVIEWS ‘An Impatient Life: A Memoir’ – BY DANIEL BENSAID

An Impatient Life: A Memoir
By Daniel Bensaïd, translated by David Fernbach, with an introduction by Tariq Ali,
Verso Books, 2014.

Readers of Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal are urged to order a copy HERE. You can download an excerpt HERE (PDF).

 

 

Review by Paul Le Blanc

May 11, 2014 – Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal –

Daniel Bensaïd (1946-2010) was one of the most respected theorists to emerge from the 1960s radicals of Western Europe. Always inclined to think “outside the box”, waving aside venerable dogmas and shrugging off standard formulations, he found fresh ways, energised with the aura of unorthodoxy, to express and apply truths from the revolutionary Marxist tradition.

Sometimes his creativity could provide insights that opened fruitful pathways of thought and action. “We were young people in a hurry, as is inevitably the case”, he writes near the start of his saga. “As if we had to make up for the wasted time of the ‘century of extremes,’ as if we were afraid of missing our appointments, in politics and in love.” In the end, “we had to learn ‘the art of waiting’”, he muses, yet the author remains an unbowed militant: “We have sometimes deceived ourselves, perhaps even often, and on many things. But at least we did not deceive ourselves about either the struggle or the choice of enemy.”

This substantial volume is a parting gift, sharing memories of what he had seen and done, offering a piece of his mind, exploring the meaning of it all – as befits the image, snapped a few years before his premature death, of the gaunt, frail man whose keen intelligence shines out from his now-bespectacled eyes.

Yet a photograph from 1948 reveals an adorable two-year old with long curly hair toddling toward us. We see a boy at ages five, nine and 14, with bright and impish eyes, destined to appear (in half a dozen photos from the 1970s) as a buoyant, handsome, charismatic activist of the famed “generation of 1968”. Daniel was centrally involved in the revolutionary student-worker upsurge that shook France and almost brought down the government of Charles De Gaulle. Out of this experience was born the militant Ligue Communiste Révolutionnaire (LCR) that powerfully impacted the global far left and became a central component of the Fourth International (a network of comparatively small revolutionary socialist parties and groups founded by Leon Trotsky and other dissident-communists over three decades before). In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Bensaïd and his comrades were intimately connected with currents in Latin America utilising the perspectives of Che Guevara and other revolutionary warriors, generating some of his most searching reflections.

The exciting years of upsurge gave way to disaster, disappointment, defeat. It was during this in-between period that I fleetingly met Bensaïd, at a 1990 World Congress and at a 1991meeting of the International Executive Committee of the Fourth International, as I represented the smallest one of three US Trotskyist fragments identifying with this “world party of socialist revolution”. It was obvious that his experience was incomparably richer than mine, and that he had earned profound respect from the other comrades who, with him, made up the inner circle of the Fourth International’s leadership.

A friend who read this book before I did warned that Bensaïd was quite a name dropper, and there are certainly scores of names that flow from these pages. But I came upon his description of the cluster of comrades from the 1980s whose labours maintained “the bonsai Comintern” that was the Fourth International: a dozen names of people – many now dead – whose strengths and weaknesses and life-energy had been essential to the world movement to which I was committed. I knew these people, they were important to me, and I felt grateful that their names with brief descriptions are shared with the readers of this book.

History is the lives of innumerable people, not abstractions, and the history of our revolutionary socialist movement is nothing without the amazing number of names (with all-too-brief descriptions) that Bensaïd weaves into his narrative. Distinctive features of this volume include (with a list of abbreviations) 12 pages of descriptions of left-wing organisations, plus extensive footnotes providing information on the dozens upon dozens of activists he mentions – together with the main narrative, making this an essential source on the international left and on world Trotskyism.

Youth radicalisation

Daniel was born into a working-class family that moved from Algeria to France shortly before his birth – the father a Sephardic Jew, the Gallic mother inclined to self-identify as Jewish. They saved enough money to start a bistro with a predominantly left-wing working-class clientele. Their clever and inquisitive son ascended into the ranks of university students while also, quite naturally, drifting into the youth group of the French Communist Party. But like many of his comrades of the time (influenced by Trotskyists doing “deep-entry” work in the group), partly under the impact of Algeria’s anti-colonial revolution and the tepid response to this by the French Communists, he came to the conclusion that it would be wrong to “confuse the revolutionary project with Stalinism”.

Rejecting the intellectual “ravages of a positivist and authoritarian Marxism” (almost in the same breath he characterises it as “a glacial Marxism without style or passion”), they turned to heretical texts – Herbert Marcuse, Wilhelm Reich, Lucien Goldmann, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Frantz Fanon, Che Guevara, Daniel Guerin, Henri Lefebvre, Ernest Mandel. Bensaïd adds that for him and many of the young radicals, too, “Lenin was all the rage”, but this was a Lenin having little in common with the immense leaden statues worshiped by older, disapproving Communist Party comrades. The intellectual rebellion quickly culminated in mass expulsions from the mainstream Communist movement, with many of the young rebels (the spirited Bensaïd no less than others) gradually recruiting themselves to a maverick variant of Trotskyism.

This historical moment was one of a youth radicalisation sweeping through Europe and other continents. In France, the young Trotskyists-in-the-making were caught up in the swirl – along with anarchists and Maoists and activists without clear labels – of students pushing for radical educational reforms and sexual freedom. The wondrous days of May 1968 saw huge demonstrations, endless meetings, student strikes and school occupations. Struggles for educational transformation blended into a more general anti-authoritarianism, opposition to imperialist wars, romantic identification with “Third World” insurgencies and the rights of the working class. This last element took on special meaning as many workers – to the horror of Stalinist and moderate-socialist trade union bureaucrats – threw their support to the “crazy” students and began organising militant strikes, matching the student barricades and street battles against brutal police repression. The question of power was being posed – the overturn of the old order seemed on the agenda.

It soon became apparent, however, that the May uprising had neither the strategic vision nor the organisational coherence nor sufficiently deep popular roots to bring on the thoroughgoing revolution that the young radicals dreamed of. This was, many agreed, simply a “dress rehearsal”.

Struggle, violence, principles

As the newly crystallised LCR grew, Bensaïd and its other leaders felt that “history was breathing down our necks”. If May 1968 was the dress rehearsal for revolution, these revolutionary militants had a responsibility to see that an actual revolution would, indeed, be produced. “We were in a hurry”, he writes, and with others he developed theoretical reference points of “an (ultra-) Leninism, dominated by the paroxysmic moment of the seizure of power”. But it had taken the Bolsheviks decades to develop experience and revolutionary seasoning in pre-revolutionary Russia that would be sufficient for the 1917 revolution. As Bensaïd describes it, the group and its young cadres were far from that. Nonetheless, their most respected revolutionary Marxist mentor, Ernest Mandel, was assuring them that “revolution is immanent”, and both in the LCR and the Fourth International they felt a responsibility to make it so. It was a time of “hasty Leninism”, whose “fearsome burden” he poignantly describes:

Our feverish impatience was inspired by a phrase from Trotsky that was often cited in our debates: “The crisis of humanity is summed up in the crisis of revolutionary leadership.” If this was indeed the case, nothing was more urgent than to resolve this crisis. The duty of each person was to contribute his or her little strength, as best they could, to settle this alternative between socialism and barbarism. It was in part up to them, therefore, whether the human species sank into a twilight future or blossomed into a society of abundance. This vision of history charged our frail shoulders with a crushing responsibility. In the face of this implacable logic, impoverished emotional life or professional ambition did not weigh very heavy. Each became personally responsible for the fate of humanity.

In North America, in Asia, and especially in Latin America there was also such “hasty Leninism”. A substantial minority in the Fourth International fiercely opposed the course that Bensaïd and others advocated – initially calling for a continent-wide strategy of rural guerilla warfare in Latin America (a perspective soon “modified” to include urban guerilla warfare as well), with similar impulses theorised for elsewhere. This led to a factional battle in the Fourth International, with a substantial minority projecting a more patient orientation grounded in classical Marxism. A prestigious former secretary of Trotsky’s, Joseph Hansen, labelled his 1971 oppositional polemic “In Defense of the Leninist Strategy of Party-Building” (which can be found on-line, as can some of Bensaïd’s writings, through the Marxist Internet Archive). After several years of experience, most of the “hasty Leninists” would more or less swing over to Hansen’s position.

But Bensaïd, a dedicated representative in Latin America from the Fourth International’s “center”, is compelled to share haunting memories: “Our comrades were young and intrepid, full of confidence in the socialist future of humanity. Three years later, half the people I met at these meetings had been arrested, tortured and murdered”. It becomes a poetry of horror:

We were running headlong into an open grave…

So many faces wiped out.

So many laughs extinguished.

So many hopes massacred.

He draws the lessons: “It was clear that we were on the wrong path… Armed struggle is not a strategy… The armed struggle we voted on at the 9th World Congress [1969] was an ill-timed generalization…”

Bensaïd emphasises that “weapons have their own logic”, elaborating:

Buying and storing and looking after weapons, renting safe-houses and supporting underground activists is an expensive business and needs money. To obtain this, you have to rob banks. And to rob banks, you need weapons. In this spiral, an increasing number of militants are socially uprooted and professionalised. Instead of melting into a social milieu like fish in water, their existence depends ever more on an expanding apparatus.

Karl Marx, Rosa Luxemburg, Lenin and Trotsky had envisioned revolutionary cadres facilitating the self-organisation and self-activity and revolutionary consciousness of various working-class and oppressed sectors. Central to this was the building reform struggles for democratic rights and economic justice, creating a movement “of the great majority, for the great majority” that would culminate in “winning the battle of democracy” and bring a transition from capitalism to socialism. For revolutionaries – Bensaïd tells us – such a working-class implantation also provides “a reality principle” to counterbalance “leftist temptations”. He and others, including seasoned guerrilla fighters, “drew the conclusion of a necessary return to more classical forms of organisation and the primacy of politics over military action, without which the logic of violence gets carried away and risks becoming uncontrollable”.

A strength in Bensaïd’s searching exploration of violence, to which he devotes a full chapter, is his understanding that violence is at the very core of capitalism and all forms of class society, quoting poetAndré Suares: “Wealth is the sign of violence, at every level”. He shows that the violence of the status quo is intensifying: “the tendency to a privatization and dissemination of violence is accelerating. Ethnic cleansing and religious massacres are proliferating. The world is collapsing into the hyper-violence of armed globalization”. Yet he sees the contamination of violence manifesting itself again and again in struggles against oppression and exploitation – liberators can become criminals, in some cases devolving into common gangsters, in the worst cases bringing in their wake the gulag and the killing fields.

Surveying revolutionary experience for over a century, he concludes: “Violence and progress no longer marched together, at the same pace, in the supposed direction of history”. He insists on the need for a practical-ethical regulation of violence in the perspectives of revolutionaries. He finds it in Trotsky’s 1938 classic Their Morals and Ours:

The “great revolutionary end” thus necessarily spurns “those base means and ways which set one part of the working class against other parts, or attempt to make the masses happy without their participation; or lower the faith of the masses in themselves and their organization, replacing it by worship for the ‘leaders’”.

Exhaustion and affirmation

Exhaustion can afflict a revolution, a struggle, an activist, an idea. A variety of such things are traced for the 20th century’s final decades. His own intensely activist organisation, the LCR, was able to endure, weather more than one storm, making important contributions to liberation struggles. Yet, “we had worked wonders, exhausting ourselves in running faster than our own shadow”. He describes excellent comrades finally asking “what it’s all about” and falling away.

Amid all of this, there appears a fleeting pen-portrait of an important mentor to innumerable Fourth Internationalists, Ernest Mandel – “a tutor in theory and a passer between two generations … who set out during the 1950s to conceptualize the new features of the era, instead of piously watching over the political legacy of the past… This daily contact with Ernest was a wellspring of knowledge and a permanent initiation into the foundations of Marxism.”

As time went on, there was a partial exhaustion of the relationship between Mandel and “the generation of ‘68” – a relationship always inspiring “more in the way of respect than affection”, and “rarely reciprocal and egalitarian”. Bensaïd saw him as at least a partial prisoner of a belief in “the emancipating powers of science and the historical logic of progress”, elaborating: “Ernest was an exemplary case of stubborn optimism of the will tempered by an intermittent pessimism of reason: for him, permanent revolution would win the day over permanent catastrophe. And the socialist prophecy would (almost) always defeat barbarism”.

Yet for many of Mandel’s political children, this seemed increasingly inadequate for the realities they were facing.

This shifting mood went far beyond the ranks of the Fourth International. Wearying leftists with an ambitious bent began proclaiming a set a “farewells” – to Marxism, to the working class, to the passionate logic of revolutionary struggle. Sanctuary could be found, sometimes with considerable comfort and impressive careers, in the power structures that their younger selves had militantly confronted. Among “third worldists” and Maoists who had once enthusiastically proclaimed that “the wind is blowing from the East”, there was a growing conviction that “it was the west wind that now prevailed over the east”, blowing ever stronger thanks to the Reagan and Thatcher revolutions. Some activists migrated from revolution to reformist politics, and some (perhaps frightened by totalitarian impulses they discovered in themselves) veered more sharply to the right.

This reflected a deeper exhaustion – of Maoist China’s revolutionary élan, of the Central American revolutions, of many hopeful aspects of the Cuban Revolution and finally of the so-called “bureaucratised workers’ states” of the Communist Bloc and the USSR itself.

The collapse of Communism was soon accompanied by other exhaustions impacting on Bensaïd and his comrades. In the 1980s, the LCR had been joined by the large, growing, vibrant Mexican and the Brazilian sections as “the big three” in the Fourth International, seeming to promise much in the rebuilding of the global left. Yet the Mexican organisation, “with wind in its sails”, had insufficient theoretical grounding and organisational strength to prevent success from corrupting some of its most prominent militants – soon leading to betrayal, demoralisation and fragmentation.

The Brazilian comrades, with whom he worked closely for many years, had thrived as an integral part of the glorious and multifaceted working-class upsurge that finally pushed aside the military dictatorship. In the form of the massive Workers Party headed by the working-class militant Lula, the insurgents finally won the presidency of the country. But a majority of the comrades found themselves pulled along into the new reformist trajectory and even neoliberal policies of the Lula regime, with a dissident fragment expelled and others splitting away amid exhausted hopes. (There was, obviously, no time for Bensaïd to offer a balance sheet on the LCR’s 2009 decision to dissolve into a broader New Anti-Capitalist Party).

Many activists, not inclined to join the well-heeled legions of the status quo, sought more resources to help them endure the new realities. Those who were Jewish (as he was) felt a need to explore the meaning of that identity and its complex and often horrific history. In such explorations, while in no way turning away from this identity (and joining in “not in my name” protests against Israel’s oppression of Palestinians), Bensaïd affirmed his rejection of “the Chosen People” concept – having no desire “to feel chosen in this way, whether to share the blessings of this election or to bear the crushing responsibility according to which Jews are supposed to be better than common mortals”.

Some, in this troubling period, explored new pathways of spirituality and even mysticism (as he did), as a means to transcend the “instrumental rationality [that] has stubbornly set out to empty time of its messianic pregnancy, to dissolve the surprises of the event with the regularity of the clock”. There is need for transcendence, “when revolution becomes the name of the inconstant event that has refused to arrive, or –still worse – has appeared in the form of its own rebuttal”. Such transcendence of “practical” and “instrumental reality” can open the way “to a new representation of history”. He insists that “the ancient prophet was neither a divine, nor a sorcerer, nor a magician. He or she was someone who switched the points of the present into the unknown bifurcations of the future.”

Yet for Bensaïd revolutionary Marxism remained the essential ingredient in his identity as a political person. A remarkable chapter in the book – “Spectres in the Blue House” – focuses on the final Mexican years of Trotsky’s exile, eloquently tracing the revolutionary’s meaning for his time and for ours. “From Marx to Trotsky”, Bensaïd writes, “permanent revolution … welds together event and history, moment and duration, rupture and continuity”. Marx is primary. In some ways the most powerful chapter is “The Inaudible Thunder”, offering an elegant explication of the three volumes of Marx’s Capital —“inescapable, always uncompleted, constantly recommenced, it is an unending project”. The profound influence on Marx of the philosopher Hegel accounts for this chapter’s title: “the still inaudible thunder of Hegelian logic” challenges the “instrumental rationality” used to “explain” and justify the capitalist status quo.

Marx’s method shatters such ideological facades, providing an in-depth analysis of “generalized commodity production” revealing the exploitation and mutilation of human labour and creativity at the system’s very heart. His intricate exploration of the “capital accumulation process” reveals the impact of bending society and culture and the environment to the voracious and destructive need for maximising profits more and more and more, forever. “The important thing”, Bensaïd insists, is “not to bend, not to give in, not to submit to the proclaimed fatality [inevitability] of the commodity order”.

The very nature of this system is such that “the world still has to be changed, and still more profoundly and more urgently than we had imagined forty years ago. Any doubt bears on the possibility of succeeding, not on the necessity of trying.” Inaction in the face of doubt is not a choice. Given the dynamics of capitalism, the oppressed and exploited majority does not have the option of “not playing the game”, and for revolutionary activists “the only compass in this uncertain work is to take the part of the oppressed, even in defeat if need be”.

“Knowing oneself to be mortal – we all do, more or less – is one thing”, Bensaïd muses in the memoir’s penultimate chapter. “Something else is to experience this and really believe it.” Seeing his own impending death as the book comes to a close, and impelled to pass his torch to us, he conveys multiple insights:

Revolts against globalized injustice are multiplying. But the spiral of retreats and defeats has not been broken. Number and mass are not enough, without will and consciousness… A resistance without victories and perspectives of counter-attack ends up being worn out. There is no victory without strategy, and no strategy without a balance of forces… Is it possible to be truly democratic without being truly socialist?… Today’s political landscape is devastated by battles lost without even being fought …

Source: LINKS: International Journal of Social Renewal

See: http://links.org.au/node/3847

 

**END**

‘Human Herbs’ – a song by Cold Hands & Quarter Moon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Au-vyMtfDAs

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Online Publications at: http://www.flowideas.co.uk/?page=pub&sub=Online%20Publications%20Glenn%20Rikowski

 

Crisis

Crisis

CRISIS AND CRITIQUE: BOOKS FOR REVIEW

Books for Review

Warren Breckmen, Adventures of the Symbolic: Post-Marxism and Radical Democracy (2013)

Tom Eyers, Post-Rationalism: Psychoanalysis, Epistemology, and Marxism in Post-War France (2013)
Gabriel Tupinambá & Yuan Yao, Hegel, Lacan, Zizek (2013)?
Costas Douzinas, Philosophy and Resistance in the Crisis: Greece and the Future of Europe (2013)
Slavoj Žižek, Demanding the Impossible (2013)
Slavoj Žižek (ed), The Idea of Communism, vol.2 (2013)
P.Thompson, S.Žižek (eds), The Privatisation of Hope: Ernst Bloch and the Future of Utopia (2013)
S.Žižek & S.Horvat, What Does Europe Want? The Union and its discontents (2013)
Slavoj Žižek, Event (2014)
Alain Badiou, Philosophy and the Event (2013)
Alan Badiou, The Subject of Change (2013)
Alain Badiou, Cinema (2013)
Alain Badiou, Rhapsody for the Theatre (2013)
Alain Badiou, Mathematics of the Transcendental: Onto-Logy and Being-there (2014)
Warren Montag, Althusser and his Contemporaries (2013)
Clayton Crockett, Deleuze beyond Badiou (2013)
Antonio Negri, The Winter Is Over: Writings on Transformation Denied, 1989–1995 (2013)
Fredric Jameson, The Antinomies of Realism (2013)
Etienne Balibar, Identity And Difference: John Locke And The Invention of Consciousness (2013)
Guglielmo Carchedi, Behind the Crisis: Marx’s Dialectic of Value and Knowledge (2012)
Bruno Bosteels, Marx and Freud in Latin America: Politics, Psychoanalysis, and Religion in Times of Terror (2012).
Evald Ilyenkov, The Dialectics of the Ideal (2013).
Louis Althusser, The Spectre of Hegel: Early Writings (2014)
Louis Althusser, On the Reproduction of Capitalism: Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (2014)
Adrian Johnston, Adventures in Transcendental Materialism: Dialogue with Contemporary Thinkers (2014)
Fabio Vighi, Critical Theory and Film: Rethinking Ideology Through Film Noir (2014)
F.Vighi, H.Feldner, S.Žižek (eds), States of Crisis and Post-Capitalist Scenarios (2014)
Bruce Fink, Against Understanding: Commentary and Critique in Lacanian Key (2013)
Bruce Fink, Against Understanding: Cases and Commentary in Lacanian Key (2013)
Jacques Lacan, On the Names-of-the-Father (2013)
Jacques Lacan, The Triumph of Religion (2013)
Roland Boer, In the Vale of Tears (2013)
Roland Boer, Lenin, Religion and Theology (2013)
Jan Rehmann, Theories of Ideology (2013)
F.Moseley, M.Holyoke, T.Smith (eds), Marx’s Capital and Hegel’s Logic (2013)
Stavros Tombazos, Time in Marx (2013)

Crisis and Critique: http://materializmidialektik.org/

Books for Review: http://materializmidialektik.org/category/revistajournal/

**END**

‘Cheerful Sin’ – a song by Victor Rikowski: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tIbX5aKUjO8

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The New Left Book Club: https://rikowski.wordpress.com/2014/01/05/the-new-left-book-club-call-for-papers/

Culture

Culture

REVIEWS IN CULTURAL THEORY – CALL FOR REVIEWERS

Dear All 

We’re inviting you to contribute to Reviews in Cultural Theory by offering to review one of the books listed below. We also welcome proposals for longer review essays, focusing on recent or forthcoming (2013-) titles. If you are interested in contributing a review or a review essay to RCT, please write to us at editors@reviewsinculture.com

If you have not visited us lately, we also invite you to our read recent reviews and essays, including Liam Young on Wolfgang Ernst’s Media Archeology, Melissa Haynes on Mel Y. Chen’s Animacies, Alison Shonkwiler on Marie-Hélène Huet’s The Culture of Disaster, as well as Graeme MacDonald’s research note, “The Resources of Culture.” 

Books Available for Review

Isabel Altamirano-Jiménez. Indigenous Encounters with Neoliberalism: Place, Women, and the Environment in Canada and Mexico. University of British Columbia Press, 2013.

Perry Anderson. The Indian Ideology. Three Essays Collective, 2013.

Emily Apter. Against World Literature: On the Politics of Untranslatability. Verso, 2013.

Nadine Attewell. Better Britons: Reproduction, National Identity, and the Afterlife of Empire. University of Toronto Press, 2013.

Alain Badiou and Fabien Tarby. Philosophy and the Event. Polity, 2013.

Étienne Balibar. Equaliberty: Political Essays. Duke University Press, 2014.

Maria del Pilar Blanco and Esther Peeren, eds. The Spectralities Reader: Ghosts and Haunting in Contemporary Cultural Theory. Bloomsbury, 2013.

Pierre Bourdieu. On the State: Lectures at the Collège de France 1989-1992. Polity, 2014.

Joram Ten Brink and Joshua Oppenheimer, eds. Killer Images: Documentary Film, Memory, and the Performance of Violence. Wallflower Press, 2013.

Judith Butler and Athena Athanasiou. Dispossession: The Performative in the Political. Polity, 2013.

Javier Sanjinés C. Embers of the Past: Essays in Times of Decolonization. Duke University Press, 2013.

Timothy Campbell and Adam Sitze, eds. Biopolitics: A Reader. Duke University Press, 2013. 

Anita Say Chan. Networking Peripheries: Technological Futures and the Myth of Digital Universalism. MIT Press, 2013.

Jeffrey Jerome Cohen, ed. Prismatic Ecology: Ecotheory beyond Green. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

William E. Connolly. The Fragility of Things: Self-Organizing Processes, Neoliberal Fantasies, and Democratic Activism. Duke University Press, 2013.

Stuart Elden. The Birth of Territory. University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Maximillian C. Forte, ed. Who Is an Indian? Race, Place, and the Politics of Indigeneity in the Americas. University of Toronto Press, 2013.

Nancy Fraser. Fortunes of Feminism: From State-Managed Capitalism to Neoliberal Crisis. Verso, 2013.

Danielle Fuller and DeNel Rehberg Sedo. Reading Beyond the Book: The Social Practices of Contemporary Literary Culture. Routledge, 2013.

Sigfried Giedion. Mechanization Takes Command: A Contribution to Anonymous History. University of Minnesota Press, 2013 (orig. 1948).

N. Katherine Hayles and Jessica Pressman, eds. Comparative Textual Media: Transforming the Humanities in the Postprint Era. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Jennifer Henderson and Pauline Wakeham, eds. Reconciling Canada: Critical Perspectives on the Culture of Redress. University of Toronto Press, 2013.

Fredric Jameson. The Antinomies of Realism. Verso, 2013.

Adrian Johnston and Catherine Malabou. Self and Emotional Life: Philosophy, Psychoanalysis, and Neuroscience. ColumbiaUniversity Press, 2013.

Stefan Jonsson. Crowds and Democracy: The Idea and Image of the Masses from Revolution to Fascism. ColumbiaUniversity Press, 2013.

Razmig Keucheyan. Trans. Gregory Elliott. Left Hemisphere: Mapping Critical Theory Today. Verso, 2013.

Thomas King. The Inconvenient Indian: A Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Bruno Latour. An Inquiry into Modes of Existence: An Anthropology of the Moderns. Harvard University Press, 2013.

Lisa Lee and Hal Foster, eds. Critical Laboratory: The Writings of Thomas Hirschhorn. MIT/October, 2013.

A. L. McCready. Yellow Ribbons: The Militarization of National Identity in Canada. Fernwood, 2013.

Meg McLagan and Yates McKee, eds. Sensible Politics: The Visual Culture of Nongovernmental Activism. Zone Books, 2013.

Sandro Mezzadra and Brett Neilson. Border as Method, or, the Multiplication of Labor. Duke University Press, 2013.

Michael Mikulak. The Politics of the Pantry: Stories, Food, and Social Change. McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2013.

Timothy Morton. Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology after the End of the World. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Ronald Niezen. Truth and Indignation: Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission on Indian Residential Schools. University of Toronto Press, 2013.

Samantha Pinto. Difficult Diasporas: The Transnational Feminist Aesthetic of the Black Atlantic. New York University Press, 2013.

Janet Roitman. Anti-Crisis. Duke University Press, 2013.

Carrie Smith-Prei. Revolting Families: Toxic Intimacy, Private Politics, and Literary Realisms in the German Sixties. University of Toronto Press, 2013.

Squatting Europe Kollective. Squatting in Europe: Radical Spaces, Urban Struggles. Minor Compositions/Autonomedia, 2013.

Ann Laura Stoler, ed. Imperial Debris: On Ruins and Ruination. Duke University Press, 2013.

 

**END**

 

Cold Hands & Quarter Moon, ‘Stagnant’ at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkP_Mi5ideo  

‘Cheerful Sin’ – a song by Victor Rikowski: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tIbX5aKUjO8

 

Posted here by Glenn Rikowski

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Online Publications at: http://www.flowideas.co.uk/?page=pub&sub=Online%20Publications%20Glenn%20Rikowski