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Monthly Archives: July 2021

Postmodernism Adieu: Toward a Politics of Human Resistance

This is an article by Peter McLaren, Dave Hill, Mike Cole and Glenn Rikowski. It appeared in Marxism Against Postmodernism in Educational Theory (Lexington Books, 2002), chapter 12, pp.275-285.

It is now available at Academia: and at ResearchGate:   

Glenn Rikowski @ ResearchGate:

Glenn Rikowski


13 July 2021


This is an article I have written with Alisson Slider do Nascimento de Paula, and it was published in the ‘Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology’, and this journal can be viewed at:

Schools of War is now available at:


And at


ABSTRACT: In his classic ‘The Condition of the Working Class in England’ (1845), Friedrich Engels argued that workers engaged in industrial action gained knowledge of economic processes, tactical awareness in struggles and grasped the value of solidarity in the face of employers‟ assaults on pay and working conditions. These struggles constituted “schools of war”; significant learning experiences for workers, argued Engels. Yet schools of war can take other forms, such as struggles against the capitalisation of education; educational institutions becoming sites of capital accumulation and preparation for capitalist work. In this sense, education has become a battleground as its privatisation, commodification, marketisation, commercialisation and monetisation have gathered pace in many countries since the second half of the twentieth century. This article argues that there are two main fronts in the war over the penetration of education by capital in contemporary society: the business takeover of education, as educational institutions become value- and profit-making sites; and the reduction of education to labour-power production. It explores these two fronts of war in terms of education policies in England and Brazil and argues for the establishment of forms of education beyond capitalist states and capital’s commodity forms.

Glenn Rikowski

@ ResearchGate:


9 July 2021